Majaba AG-43 - History

Majaba AG-43 - History

Majaba

An Island of the Philippines.

(AG-43: dp. 5,070; 1. 300'; b. 44'1"; dr. 17111"; s. 12 k.;
a. .13")

Majaba (AG-43) was built as SS Meriden by Albina Engine & Machine Works, Portland, Oreg., in 1919; acquired by the Navy under charter as SS El Capitan from her owner, E. K. Wood Lumber Co., of San Francisco, Calif., 23 April 1942; renamed Majaba and commissioned the same day.

Majaba completed conversion to a miscellaneous auxiliary 14 May and subsequently steamed to the Hawaiian Islands for cargo runs to islands of Polynesia and the South Pacific. Departing Honolulu 24 June, she operated during the next several months out of Honolulu and completed supply missions to Palmyra Island, Christmas Island, and Canton Island. Thence, she reached Efate, New Hebrides, to bolster the vital ocean supply line to American forces engaged in the bitter struggle for control of Guadalcanal.

Majaba departed the New Hebrides 26 October and steamed to meet two supply convoys bound for the Solomons. However, heavy weather prevented the rendezvous, and she returned to Espiritu Santo 29 October. Later that day she sailed once again for Guadalcanal where she arrived 2 November. Screened by Southard (DMS-10), she crossed Ironbottom Sound and unloaded cargo at Tulagi that same day.

Despite the menace of powerful Japanese naval forces, Majaba shuttled cargo between Tulagi and Guadalcanal during the next few days. She arrived off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, early 7 November; and, while her escort, Woodworth (DD-460), patrolled for enemy submarines

off Lunga Point, she began final unloading operations prior to her planned departure for Espiritu Santo. Shortly before 0930, lookouts in Lansdowne (DD-486), anchored near Maiaba, spotted a submarine periscope followed by two torpedo wakes. One torpedo, which apparently passed under Lansdowne, hit the beach but failed to explode. The other curved toward Majaba and exploded against her starboard side amidships, destroying her engineroom. and -boilers. She settled and listed slightly but did not sink. While Lansdowne and Woodworth searched for the

enemy sub, Bobolink (AT-131) went to Majaba's aid. The tug towed the disabled ship east along the coast of Guadal

canal and beached her that afternoon off the month of the Tenaru River.

On 8 January 1943 Navajo (.AT-") and Bobolink freed

Majaba from her beached position and towed her to Tulagi. Reclassified IX-102 and placed in an inservice status on I July 1943, she remained at Florida Island, Solomons, and during the remainder of World War II served as a floating quarters and material storage ship.

Following the end of the war, Majaba was towed to the Philippines. She remained at San Pedro Bay, Leyte, until early in 1946 when she was towed to Subic Bay, Luzon. There, she was placed out of service 14 March 1946 and delivered to WSA for return to her owner. Her name was struck from the Navy list 28 March 1946.

Majaba received one battle star for World War II service.


USS Majaba (AG-43)

USS "Majaba" (AG-43/IX-102) was a commercial cargo ship acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II . She was assigned to operations in the South Pacific Ocean , where, during dangerous operations at Guadalcanal , she was struck by a torpedo and beached. She was eventually salvaged sufficiently to serve as a barracks ship and as a storage ship, until she was finally disposed of post-war.

Constructed in Oregon

"Majaba" (AG 43) was built as "SS Meriden" by Albina Engine & Machine Works, Portland, Oregon , in 1919 acquired by the Navy under charter as "SS El Capitan" from her owner, E. K. Wood Lumber Co., of San Francisco, California , 23 April 1942 renamed "Majaba" and commissioned the same day.

World War II service

"Majaba" completed conversion to a miscellaneous auxiliary 14 May and subsequently steamed to the Hawaiian Islands for cargo runs to islands of Polynesia and the South Pacific Ocean.

Departing Honolulu 24 June , she operated during the next several months out of Honolulu and completed supply missions to Palmyra Island , Christmas Island, and Canton Island . Thence, she reached Efate , New Hebrides , to bolster the vital ocean supply line to American forces engaged in the bitter struggle for control of Guadalcanal . "Majaba" departed the New Hebrides 26 October and steamed to meet two supply convoy s bound for the Solomon Islands . However, heavy weather prevented the rendezvous, and she returned to Espiritu Santo 29 October . Later that day she sailed once again for Guadalcanal where she arrived 2 November . Screened by "Southard" (DMS 10), she crossed Ironbottom Sound and unloaded cargo at Tulagi that same day.

Guadalcanal operations

Despite the menace of powerful Japanese naval forces, "Majaba" shuttled cargo between Tulagi and Guadalcanal during the next few days. She arrived off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, early 7 November and, while her escort, "Woodworth" (DD 460), patrolled for enemy submarine s off Lunga Point, she began final unloading operations prior to her planned departure for Espiritu Santo.

Shortly before 0930, lookouts in "Lansdowne" (DD 486), anchored near "Majaba", spotted a submarine periscope followed by two torpedo wakes. One torpedo, which apparently passed under "Lansdowne", hit the beach but failed to explode. The other curved toward "Majaba" and exploded against her starboard side amidships, destroying her engineroom and boilers. She settled and listed slightly but did not sink.

While "Lansdowne" and "Woodworth" searched for the enemy sub, "Bobolink" (AT 131) went to "Majaba’s" aid. The tug towed the disabled ship east along the coast of Guadalcanal and beached her that afternoon off the month of the Tenaru River.

Reclassified as IX-102

On 8 January 1948 "Navajo" (AT 64) and "Bobolink" freed "Majaba" from her beached position and towed her to Tulagi. Reclassified "IX-102" and placed in an in-service status on 1 July 1943 , she remained at Florida Island , Solomons, and during the remainder of World War II served as a floating quarters and material storage ship.

Post-war inactivation

Following the end of the war, "Majaba" was towed to the Philippines . She remained at San Pedro Bay, Leyte , until early in 1946 when she was towed to Subic Bay , Luzon . There, she was placed out of service 14 March 1946 and delivered to War Shipping Administration (WSA) for return to her owner. Her name was struck from the Navy list 28 March 1946 .

Honors and awards

"Majaba" received one battle star for World War II service.

* United States Navy
* World War II

*
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/09/49/49043.htm NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive - AG-43 / IX-102 Majaba]

Wikimedia Foundation . 2010 .

Look at other dictionaries:

List of auxiliaries of the United States Navy — This is a list of auxiliaries of the United States Navy. It covers the various types of ships that support the frontline combat vessels of the United States Navy. See also: * United States Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force * United States Coast Guard… … Wikipedia

List of United States Navy ships, M — M Mak* USS M 1 (SS 47) * USS M. J. Scanlon (ID 3513) * USS M. M. Davis (SP 314) * USS M. W. Chapin (1856) * USS Maartensdijk (ID 2497) * USS Macabi (SS 375) * USS Macaw (ASR 11) * USS Macdonough (DD 9, DD 331, DD 351, DDG 39) * USS Macedonian… … Wikipedia

Liste der Schiffe der United States Navy/M — Schiffe der United States Navy A B … Deutsch Wikipedia


Majaba completed conversion to a miscellaneous auxiliary 14 May and subsequently steamed to the Hawaiian Islands for cargo runs to islands of Polynesia and the South Pacific Ocean. Departing Honolulu 24 June, she operated during the next several months out of Honolulu and completed supply missions to Palmyra Island, Christmas Island, and Canton Island. Thence, she reached Efate, New Hebrides, to bolster the vital ocean supply line to American forces engaged in the bitter struggle for control of Guadalcanal.

Majaba departed the New Hebrides 26 October and steamed to meet two supply convoys bound for the Solomon Islands. However, heavy weather prevented the rendezvous, and she returned to Espiritu Santo 29 October. Later that day she sailed once again for Guadalcanal where she arrived 2 November. Screened by USS Southard, she crossed Ironbottom Sound and unloaded cargo at Tulagi that same day.

Guadalcanal operations [ edit | edit source ]

Despite the menace of powerful Japanese naval forces, Majaba shuttled cargo between Tulagi and Guadalcanal during the next few days. She arrived off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, early 7 November and, while her escort, Woodworth, patrolled for enemy submarines off Lunga Point, she began final unloading operations prior to her planned departure for Espiritu Santo. Shortly before 0930, lookouts in Lansdowne, anchored near Majaba, spotted a submarine periscope followed by two torpedo wakes. One torpedo, which apparently passed under Lansdowne, hit the beach but failed to explode. The other curved toward Majaba and exploded against her starboard side amidships, destroying her engine room and boilers. She settled and listed slightly but did not sink. While Lansdowne and Woodworth searched for the enemy sub, Bobolink went to Majaba's aid. The tug towed the disabled ship east along the coast of Guadalcanal and beached her that afternoon off the month of the Tenaru River.


USS Majaba (El Capitan)

Commonly referred to as the ‘El Capitan’, the USS Majaba (AG-43) was built by Albina Engine & Machine works in 1919 and originally designated as the SS Meriden. On 23 April 1942, She was acquired by the US Navy as the ‘El Capitan’ and immediately renamed USS Majaba upon commissioning and conversion to a ‘miscellaneous auxiliary’ on 14 May 1942.

During World War Two, she served with distinction providing vital cargo runs for the US Military. On her final cargo mission, between Tuglai and Guadalcanal, she was struck by a torpedo from a Japanese submarine. The impact destroyed her engine room and boilers, but she did not sink. Due to this damage, she was towed to Florida Islands, Solomons, was repaired, and spent the remainder of the war serving as a floating quarters and material storage ship. Following the end of the war, she was towed to the Philippines and eventually her name was struck from the Navy List on 28 March 1946. Whilst waiting at anchor in Ilanin Bay, Subic, to be returned to her pre-war owner, E.K.Wood Lumber Co., of San Francisco, Calif, she was sunk in a storm. The Majaba received one Battle Star for service during World War Two.

It is a fairly conventional steam-powered freighter and her plate rudder design signifies that she was an older design of ship than most freighters used in the Pacific during World War Two. The existence of a large gun platform at her bow indicates her participation during the conflict, although the lack of any obvious explosive damage seems to indicate that she did not sink in action. Located on the edge of a shallow, sloping reef, the most likely cause of her sinking seems to be a collision.

The wreck lies on its port side in a maximum depth of 20m, with the starboard side only 4m below the surface. She is approximately 3000 tonnes, 80m long and structurally intact. Divers can enjoy swimming inside her massive forward and rear holds and, if suitably trained and equipped, can enjoy comparatively safe penetration into her cavernous boiler room. The combination of good visibility, shallow depth, no current and intact structure makes this one of the Subic Bay dive sites perfect for novice wreck divers.

Suitable for: All levels of diver

Perfect for: Novice wreck penetration, Underwater ‘playground’…having fun

Optimal Minimum Qualification: RAID Advanced Wreck Diver – the boiler room is very accessible, but ensure safety by using proper wreck procedures.


El Capitan (USS Majaba) Dive Site

Classification: Open Water Certification and Up – Good for New Divers, Wreck Specialist and Photography.

The El Capitan can be seen just below the surface in this aerial view

Commonly referred to as the ‘El Capitan’, the USS Majaba (AG-43) was built by Albina Engine & Machine works in 1919 and originally designated as the SS Meriden. On 23 April 1942, She was acquired by the US Navy as the ‘El Capitan’ and immediately renamed USS Majaba upon commissioning and conversion to a ‘miscellaneous auxiliary’ on 14 May 1942.

During World War Two, she served with distinction providing vital cargo runs for the US Military. On her final cargo mission, between Tuglai and Guadalcanal, she was struck by a torpedo from a Japanese submarine. The impact destroyed her engine room and boilers, but she did not sink. Due to this damage, she was towed to Florida Islands, Solomons, was repaired, and spent the remainder of the war serving as a floating quarters and material storage ship. Following the end of the war, she was towed to the Philippines and eventually her name was struck from the Navy List on 28 March 1946. Whilst waiting at anchor in Ilanin Bay, Subic, to be returned to her pre-war owner, E.K.Wood Lumber Co., of San Francisco, Calif, she was sunk in a storm. The Majaba received one Battle Star for service during World War Two.

El Capitan (USS Majaba) Dive Site

It is a fairly conventional steam-powered freighter and her plate rudder design signifies that she was an older design of ship than most freighters used in the Pacific during World War Two. The existence of a large gun platform at her bow indicates her participation during the conflict, although the lack of any obvious explosive damage seems to indicate that she did not sink in action. Located on the edge of a shallow, sloping reef, the most likely cause of her sinking seems to be collision.

The wreck lies on its port side in a maximum depth of 22m, with the starboard side only 4m below the surface. She is approximately 3000 tonnes, 80m long and structurally intact. Divers can enjoy swimming inside her massive forward and rear holds and, if suitable trained and equipped (PADI Wreck Speciality), you can enjoy comparatively safe penetration into her cavernous boiler room. The combination of good visibility, shallow depth, no current and intact structure makes this one of the dive sites perfect for novice wreck divers.


Majaba AG-43 - History

甲標的(こうひょうてき)は大日本帝国海軍(日本海軍)において最初に開発された特殊潜航艇である。兵装として魚雷2本を艦首に装備し、鉛蓄電池によって行動する小型の潜航艇であったが、後に発電用のディーゼルエンジンを装備し、ディーゼル・エレクトリック方式となった。開発当初は洋上襲撃を企図して設計されたが、後に潜水艦の甲板に搭載し、水中から発進して港湾・泊地内部に侵入し、敵艦船を攻撃するよう戦術が転換された。

構想段階 編集

志波国彬大佐の案に母艦搭載の超小型潜水艦の着想があり、艦隊主力とともに潜水艦を随所に待機させられる構想だった。1931年(昭和6年)12月、艦政本部第一部第二課長に岸本鹿子治大佐が着任すると、魚雷型超小型潜水艇の開発が始まった [2] 。基礎設計は朝熊利英造兵中佐による。朝熊はこの兵器が成立するものかどうか疑念を抱いていたが設計に着手、1932年(昭和7年)6月には全長12 mの模型が完成し、空技廠の水槽実験室を用いて航行状態の水流の状況を調査した。この試験では、司令塔周りの水流が高速になるほど、渦流が船殻沿いに強く流れて推進器に悪影響を与えることがわかり、結果を踏まえて設計が変更された。

開発開始 編集

1932年(昭和7年)に提案された設計案では、全長25m、排水量42t、水中最高速力30ノットを発揮し航続力は50分、兵装は53cm魚雷2本を装備すること、が決定された。秘匿名称は「㊀金物」(マルイチかなもの)。これをたたき台としてさらに3つの設計案が作られた。

  • 第一案は動力を電池のみとし、水中速力30ノットを発揮し60kmを行動できること、水上速力は25ノットを発揮し50kmを行動できること。
  • 第二案はディーゼルエンジンのみを搭載し、水中速力30ノットを発揮し500海里(926km)を行動できること、水上速力25ノットを発揮し300海里(556km)を行動できること。
  • 第三案は電池とディーゼルエンジンを併用し、水中速力20ノットを発揮し30kmを行動できること、水上速力15ノットを発揮し150海里(278km)を行動できること。'

実戦投入以降 編集

1941年12月の真珠湾攻撃が甲標的の初陣となった。甲標的の最先任搭乗員である岩佐直治大尉が開戦劈頭に敵の港湾にひそかに侵入して攻撃する実行案を立てて、母艦の「千代田」艦長の原田覚に申し出て、原田がそれをさらに具体案にして、軍令部作戦課潜水艦作戦主務参謀有泉龍之助中佐に相談して同意と所見を得た。原田から連合艦隊長官山本五十六大将に甲標的の作戦を具申があった。山本は一死奉公の奇襲案に感激したが、攻撃後の収容が困難なため採用しなかった。岩佐中尉らがさらに改善策を作り、連合艦隊水雷参謀の有馬高泰中佐を通じてさらに数回陳情して採用に至った [3] 。1941年11月11日、甲標的の部隊は、首席参謀の松村寛治中佐の発案で「特別攻撃隊」と第六艦隊長官の清水光美によって命名された [4] 。訓練は愛媛県瀬戸町三机湾で行われ、三机湾での甲標的の訓練は終戦まで続いた [5] 。

5隻の甲標的が真珠湾に向けて出発した。かつては真珠湾攻撃における甲標的の戦果は不明ないし戦果なしという評価であったが [6] 、甲標的の潜水調査を行った海洋歴史研究家Parks Stephenson、米海軍の退役大佐John Rodgaardや科学者Peter Hsuなどにより、5隻全てが湾内に侵入できたとされる知見が発表されている。それによると1隻が攻撃に成功し、戦艦ウェストバージニアと戦艦オクラホマに向けて魚雷が発射されたとされ、その内1発が命中した戦艦オクラホマについては甲標的によるダメージが致命的になったとされる [7] 。5隻とも未帰還となり、1隻は座礁して拿捕され、艇長の酒巻和男少尉は太平洋戦争初の捕虜となった。


Majaba AG-43 - History

SUNDAY, 1 NOVEMBER 1942

INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): During Nov 42, the 9th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, Tenth Air Force, based at Karachi with F-4s, sends a flight to operate from Kunming until July 1943 (first mission is 1 Dec).

(POA, Seventh Air Force): HQ 307th Bombardment Group arrives at Hickam Field, Hawaii from the US.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): The 431st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 11th Bombardment Group (Heavy), moves from Viti Levu, Fiji to Espiritu Santo with B-17s. During Nov, the 98th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 11th Bombardment Group (Heavy), based on Espiritu Santo, begins operating from Guadalcanal with B-17s.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-25s bomb Lae Airfield and dump area at Lae. B-17s strike shipping in the Buin-Faisi, Shortland-Tonolai. Kahili Airfield is also attacked. Lost is B-17E 41-2635 (MIA). Also, A-20s escorted by P-40s attack Lae. Lost is P-40E 41-36173 (MIA). Airacobras from the 41st Fighter Squadron (41st FS) take off on a mission to escort three C-47s bound for Pongani. Returning, the fighters encounter bad weather and two are lost: Airacobra piloted by Ingram (MIA) and Airacobra piloted by Zabel (MIA). Force landed at 7-Mile Drome is A-20A "Little Hellion" 40-166. A detachment of the 33d Troop Carrier Squadron, 315th Troop Carrier Group, begins operating from Cairns with C-47s (squadron is enroute to Australia from the US).

MONDAY, 2 NOVEMBER 1942

(POA, Seventh Air Force): The 370th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 371st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 372d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) and 424th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 307th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Kipapa Field, Wheeler Field, Kahuku and Mokuleia respectively from the US with B-24s and fly sea-search missions off Hawaii until December 1942.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): The 68th Fighter Squadron, 347th Fighter Group, arrives on New Caledonia from Tongatabu with P-40s (first mission is 12 Nov).

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-26s bomb Dili. B-17s attack shipping NE of Buna while B-25s strike at a convoy S of New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago. Australian ground forces seize Kokoda and Kokoda Airfield after long days of fighting this will greatly facilitate supply and reinforcement of troops in this area as they push over the mountains toward the Buna-Gona area. Lost are P-40E Warhawk 41-5313 (ditched, survived) and B-26 40-1493 (force landed, survived).

TUESDAY, 3 NOVEMBER 1942

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-26s bomb Dili. B-17s bomb Lae Airfield and wharf at Lae, and attack a ship south of Gasmata.

WEDNESDAY, 4 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Bad weather at Umnak and Dutch Harbor on Unalaska and flooded Adak Airfield preclude missions a new Adak Airfield runway permits an air alert.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-26s bomb Aileu on Timor. In New Guinea, B-17s and B-25s bomb Salamaua and harbor A-20s hit troop concentrations at Oivi, where an Australian attack meets firm resistance transports fly most of the remainder of the 128th Infantry Regiment, 32d Infantry Division to Wanigela Airfield. HQ 90th Bombardment Group and the 319th, 320th, 321st and 400th Bombardment Squadrons arrive at Iron Range, from Hawaii with B-24s (first mission is 13 Nov). Lost on a ferry flight is P-38F piloted by Porter (survived) and P-38F 42-12649 (survived).

Guadalcanal: U.S. Navy Task Force 65 (TF 65) made an amphibious landing in Aola.

THURSDAY, 5 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Weather reconnaissance is flown over Kiska and Little Kiska.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-25s unsuccessfully attack a schooner near Arawe. Lost is C-47 "The Broadway Limited" Serial Number 41-38615.

FRIDAY, 6 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A weather aircraft is forced back near Kiska.

(Tenth Air Force): INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): 25th Fighter Squadron, 51st Fighter Group, based at Karachi, sends a detachment to operate from Sadiya with P-40s.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A single B-25 attacks a destroyer off the S tip of New Ireland, no hits are scored. General Douglas MacArthur arrives in Point Moresby, New Guinea, where the Advanced Echelon of GHQ opens to direct operations. Force landed is DC-5 Tail Code VH-CXB near Charleville. Lost due to engine failure is P-40E "The Spoddessape" 41-25178.

SATURDAY, 7 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Six B-24s and two B-26s attack the submarine base at Kiska Harbor, slightly damaging float fighters and a seaplane beached by storm a B-17 flies reconnaissance over the airfield west of Holtz Bay and bombs the submarine base and bomb the previously damaged Borneo Maru in Gertrude Cove off Kiska.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s bomb and strafe forces at Kakandeta in the Owen Stanley Range B-25s attack seaplanes at Lasonga and shipping at Maklo in the Bismarck Archipelago. The 65th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 43d Bombardment Group (Heavy), moves from Iron Range to Mareeba with B-17s (first mission is 12 Nov).

IJN: HA-11 Type A Midget Submarine is launched off Guadalcanal and damages the USS Majaba (AG-43), forcing it to beach to prevent sinking. Responding, USS Lansdowne DD-486 and USS Lardner DD-487 search for the submarine, but fail to damage it. Afterwards, scuttled off western Guadalcanal.

SUNDAY, 8 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): In the Aleutians there is an intermittent air alert. A Weather aircraft returns due to icing.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-25s bomb the radio station and airfield on Gasmata. A-20s hit forces in the Oivi area as Australian ground forces push over the Owen Stanley Range Fifth AF transports fly the final elements of the 128th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Infantry Division, from Port Moresby to Wanigela Airfield the 80th Fighter Squadron, 8th Fighter Group moves from Port Moresby to Milne Bay with P-39s and P-400s. The 64th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 43d Bombardment Group (Heavy), moves from Iron Range to Mareeba with B-17s.

MONDAY, 9 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Two B-26s and four P-38s bomb the Borneo Maru beached in Gertrude Cove off Kiska no hits Two P-38s then strafe Kiska Harbor. One B-17 and 4 P-38s attack Holtz Bay on Attu and Attu Airfield, destroying 8 float Zekes One B-17 flies weather reconnaissance over Attu, Kiska, and Segula.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s hit troops at Oivi in support of an Australian offensive in the Owen Stanley Range B-26s bomb Buna while B-25s score a hit on a merchant vessel off the southern tip of New Ireland and attack a schooner off Salamaua airlift of elements of the 126th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Infantry Division, from Port Moresby to forward areas begins the first elements are flown to Abel's Field and move overland to Pongani. Lost are Crash landed is P-40E piloted by Howard (survived) and C-47 "Full House" 41-18587.

USMC Lost on a flight from Espiritu Santo is R4D 4696.

TUESDAY, 10 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Reconnaissance is flown over Attu, Semichi, Segula, Alaid, and Kiska. Five B-24s and one B-17 bomb Kiska submarine base, but are unable to release all their bombs. Two P-38s and an OA-10 fly local air coverage.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): In New Guinea, B-26s bomb AA positions and supply dumps along the Sanananda-Soputa Trail. A-20s hit positions at Soputa as Australian ground forces push the Japanese from Oivi toward the mouth of the Kumusi River. The 30th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 19th Bombardment Group (Heavy), begins a movement from Mareeba to the US (the squadron will convert to B-29s and return to the Pacific in Jan 45). Lost is C-47 "Flying Dutchman" 41-18564.

RAAF: Exploded on a training flight is DB-7 Boston A28-12.

WEDNESDAY, 11 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Three B-26s, three B-17s, and three B-24s biomb Kiska the B-26s make unsuccessful runs on the Borneo Maru in Gertrude Cove. B-17s and B-24s are unable to locate the submarine base due to bad weather. A weather aircraft flies over Attu and Amchitka.

(CBI) THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Tenth Air Force): INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): 9 P-40s hit Shinghbwiyang, Burma, causing heavy damage.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): Search aircraft from Guadalcanal report at least sixty-one Japanese ships in the Buin-Tonolai area with other ships are massed at Rabaul.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-17s attack shipping off the S coast of Bougainville, including B-17F 41-24528. A-20s bomb and strafe targets in the Wairopi area HQ, 126th Infantry Regiment, US 32d Infantry Division, is flown from Port Moresby to Pongani. HQ V Fighter Command arrives in Australia from the US Brigadier General Paul B Wurtsmith is named Commanding General.

USN: Lost is F4F Wildcat 5200.

IJN: Scuttled is HA-30 Type A midget submarine (crew survived)

THURSDAY, 12 NOVEMBER 1942

FRIDAY, 13 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Reconnaissance over Attu and Agattu reveals five landing barges in Chichagof Harbor on Attu.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): Air strength on Guadalcanal is raised by the arrival of 3 B-26s of the 69th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) and 70th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 38th Bombardment Group (Medium) from New Hebrides.

USN: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal continues.

Guadalacanal - Japanese cruisers and destroyers bombard Henderson Field on Guadalcanal during the night of 13/14 Nov, and destroy one of the new P-38s. They engage RAdm Callaghan's task group of cruisers and destroyers, U.S. force are heavily damaged including the sinking of USS Juneau off the coast of Guadalcanal, killing the majority of her crew, including the five Sullivan brothers. Japanese ships retire to the north after the bombardment.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-17s bomb shipping off Tonolai-Komaleai Point and the airfield at Kahili Airfield. A B-17 strafes a schooner in Lorengau Harbor.

SATURDAY, 14 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): One B-24 flies armed reconnaissance over Kiska and Attu and bomb Holtz Bay at Attu and Chichagof Harbor with negative results bombers at Adak and Umnak are alerted for shipping targets.

(CBI) THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Tenth Air Force): INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): The following squadrons of the 7th Bombardment Group begin operating or move to Gaya with B-24s: 9th Bombardment Squadron based at Karachi, begins operating from Gaya with B-24s. 436th Bombardment Squadron moves from Allahabad to Gaya. 492d Bombardment Squadron moves from Karachi to Gaya.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): Aircraft from the US aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) are joined by landbased US Marine Corps and AAF aircraft in driving off the force that bombarded Henderson Field on Guadalcanal the previous night. In view of the pressing need for aircraft in the SOPAC, Admiral Chester W Nimitz [Commander-in-Chief SOPAC (CINCPOA)] is given more freedom to deploy his air weapons he receives authority to distribute as he sees fit all available air units assigned to the S and C Pacific provided he move units rather than individual aircraft and crews.

USMC) Lost is F4F Wildcat 03454 (MIA) piloted by Lt. Col. Harold W. Bauer.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A B-25 bombs and strafes the track north of Soputa Aircraft drop bridging equipment at Wairopi on the Kokoda Trail where the Australian 25 Brigade is crossing on improvised bridge US and Australian forces are consolidating at Natunga and in the Oro Bay-Embogu-Embi areas. 2 B-17s attack transport in the Solomons.

SUNDAY, 15 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): The 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 30th Bombardment Group (under control of the 28th Composite Group), ceases operating from Adak and returns to base on Umnak with B-24s. The 406th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 41st Bombardment Group (Medium) (attached to 28th Composite Group), arrives at Elmendorf Field from the US with A-29s and B-18s (the squadron has been operating from Alaska since June 42).

Guadalcanal - Rear Admiral Willis A Lee's force of 2 battleships [USS Washington (BB-56) and USS South Dakota (BB-57)] and 3 destroyers meets and turns back a larger Japanese force, sinking the battleship Kirishima and a destroyer while losing a destroyer. This ends the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (12-15 Nov) which involved squadrons of the 11th Bombardment Group (Heavy), as well as the 69th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 70th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 72d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 339th Fighter Squadron and elements from the 39th Fighter Squadron. The Japanese beach four transports landing supplies Kinugawa Maru, Hirokawa Maru, Yamazuki Maru, Yamaura Maru. Also sunk is Ayanami.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s strafe targets near Gona while B-25s and B-26s pound AA positions at Buna and Soputa as US and Australian ground forces prepare to move against the Buna-Gona beachhead. B-17s hit shipping at Rabaul. Force landing on the return is B-24D-1 "The Condor" 41-23718. Other B-24s bomb the Buin-Fasai area. Lost are B-24D "Lady Beverly" 41-23760. Also force landed is B-17E "Spawn of Hell" 41-2662, later repaired. Also lost is B-26B "Dixie Belle" 41-17558.

The 435th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 19th Bombardment Group (Heavy), begins a movement from Townsville to the U.S. (the squadron will re-equip with B-29s and return to the Pacific in Aug 1945).

MONDAY, 16 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A weather reconnaissance flight is flown over Kiska and Attu. On Attu demolition charges are dropped on Holtz Bay, AA guns, and on a village results are not observed.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-26s, B-25s, and A-20s pound the areas around Buna, Gona, Soputa, Sanananda, and Giruwa, hitting AA positions, buildings, barges, and troop concentrations. Lost on a ferry flight is A-20A 40-155.

After midnight at Iron Range Airfield the 90th BG was taking off on their first bombing mission against Rabaul. Ten B-24 take off on the mission, but four abort due to bad weather and missing is B-24D "Punjab" 41-11902. The eleven B-24 to take off, B-24D "Bombs To Nip On" 41-23942 crashed on take off and destroys B-17F 41-24522 and damages ? and B-24D "Big Emma" 41-23751 (repaired). Eleven are killed on the ground. Lost is B-25D

New Guinea - Australian 7 Division and U.S. Army 32nd Infantry Division move forward against the Buna-Gona beachhead.

TUESDAY, 17 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A weather a reconnaissance aircraft is forced back by weather west of Kiska. Bombers are on alert to attack surface vessels.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-26s hit Gona Mission as the U.S. Army 32nd Infantry and Australian 7 Divisions continue to move toward the Buna-Gona beachhead. B-25s bomb Lae Airfield and Gasmata Airfield. A lone B-24 bombs the wharf area at Rabaul. Lost are P-40E 41-36166 (survived) and P-40E 41-24821 (survived).

RAAF: Beaufighters from 30 Squadron make a low level strafing raid over Lae Airfield.

CNAC: Lost is C-47 441-18556 / CNAC #60 (MIA).

WEDNESDAY, 18 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): An armed reconnaissance is flown over Kiska and Attu, no bombs are dropped.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): B-25s bomb Lae Airfield and Salamaua Airfield B-17s attack warships 50 miles southwest of Gasmata located off the southern coast of New Britain, 17 miles north of Buna, and between Gona and Cape Ward Hunt B-26s bomb and strafe the area between Cape Endaiadere and Buna. The 28th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 7th Bombardment Group (Heavy), begins a movement from Mareeba to the US (squadron will return to Guam in Jan 45 with B-29s).

Lost is B-17F- 41-24531

USA: Missing on a training fight is AT-7 Navigator piloted by Gamber.

THURSDAY, 19 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): Reconnaissance aircraft over Attu and Agattu sights two unidentified float monoplanes east of Buldir.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): The 12th Fighter Squadron, 15th Fighter Group moves from Christmas to Efate with P-39s.

IJN: HA-37 Midget Submarine is scuttled off Cape Esperence on Guadalcanal.

FRIDAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A reconnaissance aircraft over Kiska draws heavy AA from Gertrude Cove.

(CBI) THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Tenth Air Force): INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): Eight B-24s bomb the marshalling yard at Mandalay as IATF bombers, commanded by Colonel Conrad F. Necrason, intensify their campaign against Burma and Thailand.

RAAF: Wirraway A20-519 flies a reconnaissance mission over Gona.

SATURDAY, 21 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A reconnaissance is flown over Kiska, Attu, and Agattu.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s and B-25s pound the airfield, AA positions, and bridge at Buna and hit the village of Sanananda in support of Allied ground forces the Australian-US force is advancing from Soputa toward Sanananda US forces driving on Buna are halted by strong bunker positions at The Triangle where trails to Buna mission and Buna village meet. Force landed is A-20A "Old Man Mose" 40-101 and P-40E 41-5607.

RAAF: Wirraway A20-519 force lands at Wairopi Airstrip, both crew survive and are later rescued.

SUNDAY, 22 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A B-24 flies reconnaissance over Kiska, Attu, and Agattu bombers and fighters are alerted for a 23 Nov mission to find and destroy a reported five vessel convoy.

(CBI) THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Tenth Air Force): INDIA AIR TASK FORCE (IATF): Six B-24s inflict heavy damage on the railroad center at Mandalay.

(POA, Seventh Air Force): The critical lack of aircraft repair and maintenance facilities is alleviated somewhat by the arrival of the 13th Air Depot and the 6th and 29th Service Groups the units are based on New Caledonia and Espiritu Santo .

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC, Joint Chiefs of Staff): HQ 4th Photographic Group arrives on New Caledonia from the US.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s pound trails around Sanananda while B-26s hit the Buna area B-17s and B-25s hit Lae Airfield and barges between Lae and Salamaua, and attack warships 68 miles southwest of Arawe and elsewhere in the Solomon Sea. Lost are P-40E 41-36089 (survived), P-40E 41-5613 (MIA), P-40E 41-5610 (survived), P-400 BW105 (MIA) and B-17E 41-2536.

MONDAY, 23 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A reconnaissance is flown over Kiska, Attu, Agattu, and Amchitka.

(CBI) THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Tenth Air Force): CHINA AIR TASK FORCE (CATF): Nine B-25s and seven P-40s feint at Hong Kong, then fly to the Gulf of Tonkin sinking a freighter and damage two others near Haiphong. 6 B-25s and 17 P-40s pound Tien Ho Airfield claiming 40+ aircraft destroyed on the field these strikes follow 3 weeks of missions in support of Chinese forces along the Siang-Chiang River.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): A-20s and B-26s pound Sanananda Point as Australian forces begin their assault on Gona and US forces approach Sanananda the 403d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 43d Bombardment Group (Heavy), moves from Iron Range to Turnbull Airfield.

TUESDAY, 24 NOVEMBER 1942

WEDNESDAY, 25 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A reconnaissance is flown over Kiska, Attu and Semichi.

CHINA AIR TASK FORCE (CATF): B-25s and P-40s cripple three freighters on Pearl River near Canton.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): P-38s hit Lae Airfield a B-25 scores a hit on a cruiser off Tami.

SOUTH PACIFIC AREA (SOPAC): B-17E "Old Maid" 41-2409 crash landed at Henderson Field and was written off.

THURSDAY, 26 NOVEMBER 1942

ALASKA (Eleventh Air Force): A B-24 reconnoitering Holtz Bay on Attu spots shipping targets which are subsequently hit by four B-26s escorted by four P-38s 1 large vessel is claimed afire and sinking reconnaissance is flown over Rat, shipping off Kiska, Agattu and Semichi and the north coast of Attu 2 P-38s and 1 B-26 sustain minor damage.

South Pacific: Shootout between B-17E 41-2433 and H6K2 Mavis, both damaged in the combat.

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA (SWPA, Fifth Air Force): US and Australian ground forces carry out limited attacks on the Buna front, making little progress in an effort to break Japanese air superiority over Buna, P-40s, A-20s, and B-25s pound airfields and AA positions in the area B-26s strike the Salamaua area. Lost are C-47 "Swamp Rat" 41-38601 (KIA), C-47 41-38631 (KIA) and P-40E 41-5645 (MIA).

IJN: Japanese fighters and bombers of the 582 Kokutai took off from Lae Airfield and attacked the Buna area of ground combat. They claimed two Douglas transports destroyed: C-47 "Swamp Rat" 41-38601 and C-47 41-38631. Also two C-47s were damaged as well as damage to ground targets and a transport ship, lugger Helen Dawn that had run aground and was strafed and destroyed. There was also air combat with P-40s from the 8th Fighter Squadron. Also sunk are three Allied small ships: Bonwin, Minnamurra, Alacrity and a captured Japanese barge.

A Japanese radio message states 10 Zeros and 7 Val dive bombers were available at Lae Airfield. Various Allied reports place the number of attacking Japanese aircraft at 15, 13, 11 or 8 at various points during the attacks. In addition the Japanese hit US (3Bn/128th Inf) and Australian positions (inc a field hosp). Aussies suffered 22 killed (including two MDs) and about 50 wounded, US lost 6 killed. References: Japanese monograph on naval SE Area air ops via Richard Dunn.

Field Guide to the Kokoda Track page 420:
"Some low reconnaissance flights were immediately followed up by a raid by 13 Zeros that bombed both Soputa and a nearby American clearing hospital. Six Americans were killed, but worse was in store for the Australians. At the MDS, sited in a clearing by the roadside and practically devoid of cover, 22 Australians were killed and approximately another 50 patients, field ambulance personnel and visitors were wounded. Among those lost were two well-beloved Australian medical officers, Majors Ian Vickery and Hew McDonald of the 2/4th Field Ambulance, both of whom had done outstanding work during the campaign over the ranges."

The same book goes on to list the following 10 AA Medical Corps members killed in the attack:
27-NOV-1942:
Pte George E Antees, NX71582 (KIA)
Sig Dean B George, NX46705 (KIA)
Pte Keith A Kuch, VX29147 (KIA)
Pte Keith A Lawler, TX3638 (KIA)
T/Maj Hew F McDonald, VX14704 (KIA)
L/Cpl Arthur M Moodie, NX25177 (KIA)
Pte Edmund Schubert, NX52126 (KIA)
Spr Horace W Thomas, NX53514 (KIA)
Maj Ian F Vickery, NX473 (KIA)
Pte Gordon L Pugh, NX67499 (DOW 31-DEC-1942)

ABMC for those listed as KIA with the 128th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Infantry Division on 26/27-NOV-1942 and have come up with the following five names. Note that there were other personnel, serving with other parts of the 32nd Inf Div also killed on these dates, so these are not confirmed to have been KIA in the air raid.

26-NOV-1942:
Pvt Howard Adams, 37067179 (KIA - Buried Manila)
PFC Ralph Carpinelli, 36111734 (KIA - Buried Manila)
Sgt Walter J Zimmerman, 20650622 (KIA - Buried Manila)


ADMINISTRATIVE CLOSURE OF CASES

Matter of Morales, 21 I&N Dec. 130 (BIA 1995, 1996)

(1) Where an alien in exclusion or deportation proceedings requests administrative closure pursuant to the settlement agreement set forth in American Baptist Churches et al. v. Thornburgh, 760 F. Supp. 797 (N.D.Cal.1991) ("ABC agreement"), the function of the Executive Office for Immigration Review ("EOIR") is restricted to the inquiries required under paragraph 19 of the agreement, i.e., (1) whether an alien is a class member, (2) whether he has been convicted of an aggravated felony, and (3) whether he poses one of the three safety concerns enumerated in paragraph 17.

(2) If a class member requesting administrative closure under the ABC agreement has not been convicted of an aggravated felony and does not fall within one of the three listed categories of public safety concerns under paragraph 17 of the agreement, EOIR must administratively close the matter to afford the alien the opportunity to pursue his rights in a special proceeding before the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

(3) If the applicant is subsequently found ineligible for the benefits of the ABC agreement in the nonadversarial proceeding before the asylum officer, or if he is denied asylum after a full de novo hearing, the Service may reinstitute exclusion or deportation proceedings by filing a motion with the Immigration Judge to recalendar the case, and such motion need only show, through evidence of an asylum officer's decision in the matter, that the class member's rights under paragraph 2 of the agreement have been exercised.

(4) Neither the Board of Immigration Appeals nor the Immigration Judges will review the Service's eligibility determinations under paragraph 2 of the ABC agreement.

Matter of Gutierrez, 21 I&N Dec. 479 (BIA 1996)

(1) Administrative closure of a case is used to temporarily remove the case from an Immigration Judge's calendar or from the Board of Immigration Appeal's docket. A case may not be administratively closed if opposed by either of the parties. Administrative closing of a case does not result in a final order. It is merely an administrative convenience which allows the removal of cases from the calendar in appropriate situations.

(2) The settlement agreement underAmerican Baptist Churches v. Thornburgh, 760 F. Supp. 796 (N.D.Cal.1991) ("ABC"), specifically states that nothing in the agreement shall limit the right of a class member to pursue other legal rights to which he or she might be entitled under the Immigration and Nationality Act. This language is mandatory and does not indicate that such action by an alien would be curtailed by the administrative closing of each class member's case or postponed until the eventual final resolution of each class member's remedies under the settlement agreement itself.

(3) An ABC alien's right to apply for relief from deportation is not prohibited due to the administrative closure of his or her case. Such an alien, therefore, may file a motion to reopen with the administrative body which administratively closed his or her case in order to pursue issues or relief from deportation which were not raised in the administratively closed proceedings. Such motion must comply with all applicable regulations in order for the alien's case to be reopened.

(4) An alien who has had his or her case reopened and who receives an adverse decision from an Immigration Judge in the reopened proceedings must file an appeal of that new decision, in accordance with applicable regulations, in order to vest the Board with jurisdiction to review the Immigration Judge's decision on the issues raised in the reopened proceedings. That appeal would be a separate and independent appeal from any previously filed appeal and would not be consolidated with an appeal before the Board regarding issues which have been administratively closed.

(5) Any appeal pending before the Board regarding issues or forms of relief from deportation which have been administratively closed by the Board prior to the reopening of the alien's proceedings will remain administratively closed. A motion to reinstate an appeal is required before issues which have been administratively closed can be considered by the Board.

Matter of Avetisyan, 25 I&N Dec. 688 (BIA 2012)

(1) Pursuant to the authority delegated by the Attorney General and the responsibility to exercise that authority with independent judgment and discretion, the Immigration Judges and the Board may administratively close removal proceedings, even if a party opposes, if it is otherwise appropriate under the circumstances. Matter of Gutierrez, 21 I&N Dec. 479 (BIA 1996), overruled.

(2) In determining whether administrative closure of proceedings is appropriate, an Immigration Judge or the Board should weigh all relevant factors, including but not limited to: (1) the reason administrative closure is sought (2) the basis for any opposition to administrative closure (3) the likelihood the respondent will succeed on any petition, application, or other action he or she is pursuing outside of removal proceedings (4) the anticipated duration of the closure (5) the responsibility of either party, if any, in contributing to any current or anticipated delay and (6) the ultimate outcome of removal proceedings (for example, termination of the proceedings or entry of a removal order) when the case is recalendared before the Immigration Judge or the appeal is reinstated before the Board.


The ocean is an vital part to our life. We should fight to save it. There is after all no planet B. The ocean needs your help to keep millions of pounds of trash away from it – your everyday choices can help keep it clean.

For months, I have put off my plans of diving! I was probably meant to have my 20th dive in the place where I learned diving (courtesy of Boardwalk Dive Center).

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Subic Bay is home to a lot of wrecks! When you go wreck diving, you have to make sure that you have a good trim or else silt will ruin the visibility. If someone calls you a seahorse while diving, that means you suck at doing the trim. Day in and day out, people from different countries would visit to test their skills. I have always been lucky enough to go diving with people who had more experience and who were of higher levels: technical dive masters and rescue diver while I am still an advanced adventure diver.Anyways,I probably suck more at selfies underwater than on land (my rate of success on land is 1/20) so I hope you forgive me for my futile attempt at underwater photography.

First dive was at USS New York, one of the most popular wrecks in Subic. If you want to explore the entire wreck, you will need to have excellent technical dive skills. The wreck is not for the fainthearted. It will test you and bring out the claustrophobic in you. Three divers have died exploring inside the USS New York – which indicates significant hazards and the need for advanced technical wreck training. My bottom time was 30 mins. since I was just using air. I wish I could have stayed longer.

Depth: 16 until 32 Meters

Length: 116 Meters

Position: Port Side

Current: Generally Calm

Suitable for: Advanced Open Water/Experienced/Technical Wreck Divers

Perfect for: Intermediate-Technical Wreck Penetration, Historical/Heritage Appreciation.

Diving Information:

Basic Divers – Lower than average visibility (due to proximity to the Olongapo river mouth) and deeper water makes this site more suitable for divers who have gained experience beyond entry-level training. The top of the wreck lies in 17-22m depth, covered in soft and whip corals with many reef fish. Lying slightly deeper (

59 ft (18 m) deep) divers can examine the uppermost barrel of an 8 in (200 mm) primary gun. The 361 ft (110 m) length gives plenty of area to observe. Corals, sponges and fish life that have had over 60 years to convert it into home. Scorpion fish are common around this wreck and divers are reminded that contact with these fish is dangerous. Experienced Wreck Divers – More advanced divers can explore the propeller, conning tower and deck areas. There are some areas of relatively easy penetration, with open-spaces and sufficient height to stay clear of major silt deposits. These include the following. The mess deck (2nd deck down) has an interesting penetration 197 ft (60 m) with port holes above allowing light, but no exit. The boiler room can be explored within recreation diving limits. Due to the nature of the wreck, with low light/viz and the risk of silt disturbance redundant gas supplies and guideline deployment training are recommended for penetrations.

Advanced/Technical Wreck Divers – Three divers have died exploring inside the USS New York – which indicates significant hazards and the need for advanced technical wreck training. Divers with proper decompression and advanced/technical wreck penetration training can reach the engine room, machinery spaces and lower decks. These are in excellent condition, with huge pipes, machinery and valve wheels. Spaces are extremely confined, with many restrictions and high risk of silt-out. Penetration is generally made on twin tanks, whilst deploying a constant guideline to the exit. Both engine room entrances have notices, warning of the dangers to the untrained.

I am no stranger to the second dive site El Capitan (USS Majaba). It was where I did my first and second dive. Unlike USS New York, I was unlucky because the go pro ran out of battery while we were exploring inside! It was a beauty and I will definitely go back to take good videos and photos. I forced the gopro and somehow it worked and I got to take photos of the school of jacks at the end of the dive! We also got to see a spotted ray and not-so-giant clams.

Depth: 5 until 21 Meters

Long: 90 Meters

Wide: 16 Meters

Position: Starboard side

Current: Generally Calm

Suitable for: All Levels of Divers Perfect for: Novice Wreck Penetration, Fun

Diving Information:

At a depth of slightly over 18 meters the outside of the wreck provides an excellent site for divers. The forward hole is wide-open allowing entry by even novice divers. The top side (starboard side) is at 5 meters, which eliminates the need for an extra safety stop. This area is alive with a variety of fish. From the forward hole, additional areas of the ship may be accessed. One route takes you to the accommodation area and on to rear cargo hold. Wreck History: Normally referred to as the El Capitan the USS Majaba (AG 43) was built as SS Meriden by Albina Engine & Machine Works, Portland, Oreg., in 1919 acquired by the Navy under charter as SS El Capitan from her owner, E. K. Wood Lumber Co., of San Francisco, Calif., 23 April 1942 renamed Majaba and commissioned the same day. She was placed out of service 14 March 1946 at Subic Bay.

How To Get There From Manila:

Take the Victory Liner Bus from Cubao, Quezon City. Take the one via SCTEX, it is a lot faster. When you get off the terminal, you can ask around where to take the jeepney that goes to SM Olongapo or if you have a lot of cash, you can take a cab into Subic Bay for P300. From SM Olongapo, you can just walk through the gates into Subic Bay Freeport.

Victory Liner Bus Schedule

Where To Stay When In Subic Bay Freeport:

If you are on a budget, you should check-out The Cabin by Subic Park Hotel. It is one of the cheapest accommodation than you can find.

A practical place for practical people. The only Backpackers Hotel inside Subic Bay Freeport Zone. It is located along Schley road, Subic Bay Freeport Zone. Owned and managed by Subic Park Hotel. The Cabin has dormitory type accommodations with (5) five bunk beds, individual cabinet, fan, and fully air-conditioned. We also have twelve (12) Private Rooms with air-condition, LCD Television and Coffee Table available for single or double occupancy. You can also enjoy our homey type reception area where you can feel and enjoy the warmth hospitality of our accommodating staff and its country side atmosphere. For as low as Php 430/night to Php 750/night you can now avail and enjoy the most affordable country style service with free Wi-Fi access everywhere.

You can book here: http://www.thecabinsubic.com/

If you want high-class accommodation, you should try The Lighthouse Marina Resort. It is the best hotel in Subic Bay.

The Lighthouse Marina Resort is a three-floor, 34-room boutique hotel capped by a lighthouse. The hotel is sleek and ultra-modern in its Palafox-designed architecture. Done in almost austere Italianate architectonics with its elegantly simplistic hotel facade, the hotel main building provided a perfect compliment to the 20 meter light tower done in surprising detail very faithful to naval architecture specifications. It’s exclusive location hidden in the midst of the busy Waterfront Road makes it the ultimate haven of retreat. The Lighthouse established back in 2007 to provide transient residence to executives of business locators of the Subic free port zone and for tourists who frequent the port more for its sailing and eco-tourism than its business.

You can book here: http://www.lighthousesubic.com/ or through agoda.com

After the dives, I realized I need to save up for a better underwater camera, my wing (the one I used for Miss SCUBA was just borrowed), my torch and jet fins for the love of having a more streamlined dive in the future! I also need to practice more on taking better selfies and perfecting my trim! Also need to ask someone else to take photos of me so I have full body ones. It sucks when you are the one with the camera, you barely have decent photos!

It is always a good experience to dive at Subic! It is easy access and you can go to a lot of wreck sites.You should not miss diving there!


Majaba AG-43 - History

Figure 1
A Japanese artwork depicting a Kohyoteki Type A midget submarine. Eight of these midget submarines were expended during the Guadalcanal Campaign, with seven still remaining as archaeological sites in the Iron Bottom Sound area. The Kohyoteki 30 archaeological site off Savo is still completely intact and an Archaehistoria Expedition in January 1999 attempted to locate it. [As published p.9 Gakken Vol. 35].

Author
Ewan M. Stevenson
28 April 2013

Location
Possibly sunk off Kalaka, South West side of Savo Island.

GPS
09º 9.080’S, 159º 47.200’E approx.

Crew
Lt.(jg) Teiji Yamaki and PO1 Ryoichi Hashimoto.

Specifications Kohyoteki Type A
Length overall (m) 23.90
Breadth, maximum (m) 1.85
Depth, conning tower to keel (m) 3.10
Displacement, submerged (tons) 46
Main battery (type/no of cells) Special D/224
Main motor (hp) 600
Maximum submerged speed (kts) 24.85
Radius of action, submerged (kts/nm) 6/80
18/50 min
Safe diving depth (m) 100
Torpedo armament Two 45.7cm (18-inch) diameter
Type 97
Periscope, length (m) 3.05


Figure 2
General Arrangement of Kohyoteki Type A. [As published p. 117 of Warship 1993].

History
During the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Japanese maintained an observation post on the Eastern edge of the summit of Mt. Austen. From this OP, the Japanese looked down on the Marine perimeter and Henderson Field. In addition, American naval movements in Iron Bottom Sound were reported. The arrival and departure of American transports unloading supplies and re-enforcements at Lunga Point adjacent Henderson Field was duly noted and the information sent to higher command.

In response, the Japanese planned to use midget submarines (Kohyoteki Type) to attack the American transports. A midget submarine base was intended for construction in Kamimbo (Tambea) Bay near Cape Esperance at the Western end of Guadalcanal. However, as the campaign developed, American military pressure forced the Japanese to change plans and reduce the base to more like a “reception” centre (Site GUAD43). The Kohyoteki would be brought underwater to Iron Bottom Sound “piggy-back” style on fleet I-class submarines and then released at night for attacks. After the attack on the Lunga Roads area, the Kohyoteki would return to Kamimbo Bay, where the two man crew would abandon their Kohyoteki, and then swim and walk to the ‘reception’ centre. The Kohyoteki crews were later evacuated by fleet submarines.

The Americans used destroyers, destroyer escorts, sub-chasers, patrol craft, and New Zealand corvettes to form an anti-submarine and anti-aircraft screen around the transports and freighters unloading at Lunga Point. The escort vessels patrolled back and forth in a perimeter outside the transports listening constantly with sonar gear for interloping submarines. For the Kohyoteki, they had to penetrate this screen to reach an attack position on the transports. The compact size of the midgets was an advantage in penetrating this screen.

The Japanese launched eight Kohyoteki missions during the Guadalcanal Campaign. After launching, two of the Kohyoteki’s were forced to abort due mechanical difficulties. The Kohyoteki 30 (Ha-30), sunk off Savo, was one of this pair that frustratingly had to abort their mission. The remaining six attacked American shipping off Lunga Point. Half of these attacks were successful in torpedoing a ship. Co-ordinating these attacks with the arrival of American ships (targets) off the Lunga roadstead would have been very difficult for the Japanese.

The first Guadalcanal Kohyoteki attack was by Ha-11 on November 7, 1942. After being delivered by mother submarine I-20, Kohyoteki 11 found meagre pickings off Lunga Point- the single 5000-ton, 22 year old, freighter USS Majaba (AG-43) and two destroyers. The Ha-11 blew a big hole in the freighter’s side, which was beached to prevent her sinking. The Kohyoteki crew managed to sneak away and beach Ha-11 on the coast at the Western end of Guadalcanal (Site GUAD56 see also ‘Then and Now’ Section). This crew successfully made it to the reception centre at Kamimbo and were evacuated.

The second Kohyoteki attack in Iron Bottom Sound occurred four days after the first and is the subject of this report. Mother submarine I-16 deployed Kohyoteki 30 but the midget submarine experienced rudder difficulties and was forced to abort the mission. The Ha-30 was scuttled and “sunk off Savo” according to Japanese sources. The crew, Lt.(jg) Teiji Yamaki and PO1 Ryoichi Hashimoto, survived the mission and Teiji Yamaki was still living in Japan in 1994.

The only other ship torpedoed by Japanese midget attack during the Guadalcanal Campaign was the USS Alchiba (AK-23). The cargo ship was beached in Tenaru Bay after the first hit on November 28, and then had the misfortune to be torpedoed a second time by another Kohyoteki 38 (Ha-38). In the second attack, the Alchiba didn’t move- she was already beached! Both victims of Kohyoteki attacks at Guadalcanal were later salvaged, repaired, and returned to war service. Overall, the Kohyoteki operation results were poor for such a major effort by the Japanese and minimally disrupted the vital American logistics train into Guadalcanal.

Table 1. Japanese ­Kohyoteki Operations of the Guadalcanal Campaign and Archaeological Sites

Kohyoteki No.
(Mother submarine)
Launch date
from mother sub
Crew Comment Site
Kohyoteki 11
(I-20)
7 November 1942 Lt. (jg) Shinji Kunihiro
PO1. Goro Inoue
Torpedoed USS Majaba (AG-43), successfully abandoned near Kamimbo GUAD56
Still there in good condition. Extreme risk of scrapping. Under grave threat of vandalism. See ‘Then and Now’ section.
Kohyoteki 30
(I-16)
11 November 1942 Lt. (jg) Teiji Yamaki
PO1. Ryoichi Hashimoto
Aborted due rudder difficulties, scuttled off Savo SAVO13
Subject of Archaehistoria.org search Jan 1999 & Nov 2011. Undiscovered site. Likely 900-1200 meters depth.
Kohyoteki 37
(I-20)
19 November 1942 Lt. (jg) Toshiaki Miyoshi
PO1. Kyoshi Umeda
Aborted due depth control difficulties, successfully abandoned near Kamimbo FLOR15
Salvaged by USCGC Ironwood (WAGL-297) January 1945. Known site awaiting survey by Archaehistoria.org funding?
Kohyoteki 12
(I-24)
20 November 1942 Lt. (jg) Yasuaki Mukai
PO1. Kyugoro Sano
Did not return IBS34
Have tried to historically link to American anti-submarine attack but so far failed any ideas anyone? Site unknown.
Kohyoteki 20
(I-16)
28 November 1942 Lt. (jg) Hiroshi Hoka
PO2. Shinsaku Iguma
Torpedoed USS Alchiba (AK-23), sunk by USS Lansdowne (DD-486) IBS51
Undiscovered site. In approx. 700 meters between Savo and Cape Esperance. Nearly made it to the reception centre!.
Kohyoteki 8
(I-20)
2 December 1942 Lt. (jg) Chiaki Tanaka
PO2. Mamoru Mitani
Targeted SS Joseph Teal nearly hit Alchiba. Successfully abandoned Visale USA
Salvaged by USS Ortolan (ASR-5) May 1943, now displayed at Nautilus & Submarine Museum, Groton, CT. Best preserved.
Kohyoteki 38
(I-24)
7 December 1942 Lt. (jg) Tomio Tsuji
PO1. Daiseiki Tsubokura
Torpedoed Alchiba and sunk by PC-477 and SBD-3 dive bomber of VMSB-142 IBS45
Sunk in 700 meters in IBS. Undiscovered. Located approx. half way between Savo and Lunga Point.
Kohyoteki 22
(I-16)
13 December 1942 Lt. (jg) Yoshimi Kado
PO2. Toshio Yahagi
Claimed attacked a DD
successfully abandoned near Kamimbo
GUAD45
Known site. Poor condition. Archaehistoria.org rediscovered and surveyed in 1994.

Discussion
The Kohyoteki were developed and designed to be launched from ramps at the stern of large ships. The original battle concept was these ships would steam in advance of the main imperial fleet and release the midgets into the path of the oncoming enemy units. As military technology rapidly advanced just prior to WWII, air power rose to prominence and made the surface vessel midget carriers too vulnerable to air attack so another deployment method had to be developed. This was successfully done using large fleet submarines carrying the Kohyoteki on the stern deck. The Kohyoteki crew could enter their mount from the mother submarine whilst still underwater through an ingenious water-tight connection hatch. In this way, the midget could be transported secretly close to the target and released. During WWII, this method was used to deliver Kohyoteki for attacks and worked well.

It appears, however, that this launching system may have had some disadvantages too and may have been the cause for the aborted Kohyoteki 30 mission. Most importantly, the release phase would have to be very carefully controlled. The lightly built, vulnerable control surfaces and other vital installations on the exterior of the 46 ton Kohyoteki could easily be damaged if physical contact was made with the 2500 ton mother submarine. If the seas were even slightly rough, there would be a high risk of collision. Is this what occurred to Ha-30 on November 11, 1942? Were the seas rough that night? Did the stern of the midget collide with part of the mother submarine and damage the midget’s rudders? The carrying of the Kohyoteki underwater also makes it vulnerable- it is somewhat exposed on the stern deck of a submerged submarine. Did something impact the rudders and damage them during transport? Were the rudders fluttering in the wake turbulence and this damaged them? An archaeological survey could provide the answers to these historical questions.

With the rudders inoperative, the midget would steam in circles. It would be uncontrollable. This could explain why they would not execute their first inclination which would be to steam towards the reception centre and abandon the damaged Kohyoteki there. Were they able to make way at all and possibly steam in a big circle ending up close to Savo’s shores where they abandoned the Kohyoteki there? Why say “sunk off Savo” and not “off Guadalcanal”?

Archaehistoria’s first attempt to locate the archaeological site of Ko-hyoteki 30
In January 1999, Archaehistoria conducted an expedition to Iron Bottom Sound to survey and explore for WWII archaeological sites. One of the objectives for the expedition was Kohyoteki 30. There was a possibility the crew had abandoned Ha-30 close to Savo’s shores or beached it on the coast. Could it be within range of SCUBA?.

The search for Ha-30 was combined with the main objective of the Archaehistoria January 1999 expedition – the locating of the heavy cruiser USS Astoria (CA-34) (See Site SAVO7) or possibly USS Vincennes (CA-44).

Two days were spent exploring the marine topography of Savo and extensively echo-sounding surveying Savo’s Eastern side and Northern end. All the field investigations for Ha-30 occurred on the first Savo-survey day: Thursday January 7, 1999.

Two boats were organised for the echo-sounder survey on January 7. A fibreglass canoe manned by Franck Bouley and Paul Martin of Solomon Sea Divers, with Kevin Denlay, took the outer deeper survey line. Richard Theakston and myself were in Ian Gardiner’s boat and conducted the shallower survey route. I recorded the conditions in my expedition diary:

Sea was glassy smooth – quite incredible and ideal. Took only one hour to reach Savo [from Point Cruz].

To find out about a possible local submarine wreck and other WWII wreckage, I landed on the island a number of times and enquired with the Savo Islanders. My expedition diary records how the day panned out and the typical miss-information combined with isolated truths, despite my fluent pijin language skills, and good Melanesian cultural knowledge:

…we searched 55-60 meters and the bottom was rather convoluted at this depth. Some “fingers” extended seaward some distance but dropped off steeply too. Came across a friendly [Melanesian] guy fishing in a canoe opposite Tasimania. The guy was very helpful and suggested a small submarine wreck! [this was unprompted by me]. That had to be Ko-hyoteki 30!! He also said only one plane crashed on the island – must only be VS-64 [sic] SOC-1. He was oppo Tasimania & said the sub was to the North! He said it was near Simbo and to ask the people there. We met Paul’s boat which was behind some miles because they had to go real slow to maintain picture quality. [On the echo sounder screen].

Figure 3
A lone fisherman in traditional wooden canoe off Savo in the evening of November 2, 2011. On the first attempt to locate Kohyoteki 30 we pulled alongside a fisherman like this off Tasimania on the West coast, who provided us information on WWII sites on Savo. Mountains of Cape Esperance on Guadalcanal in the distance. [Photo by Ewan M. Stevenson].

Kevin [with Franck Bouley and Paul Martin] had searched around the 60-70m mark. [no bottom feature like a heavy cruiser had been seen] We decided to go and dive the sub. We pulled in where we saw smoke [smoke from garden or cooking fires indicates habitation] coming and where we thought Simbo was but we were just South of it at a “resort”, it was rather pleasant and called “Leqalau”. The native owner “Alan ” i was proud [of his resort]…he sent a boy with us, Tuomei, to ask at another village if we could dive the sub. We headed South. Finally, it turned out we had to ask at Kalaka. Very steep hills immediately behind shore. Kalaka was miles & miles South & East from where the fisherman said the sub was off Simbo. We got feelings of wild goose chase but eventually picked up a native “diver” (spearfisherman) from Kalaka who indicated the El Torito (Walter Starck’s expedition) found a “sub” off this rock near Kalaka.

I was well aware of Dr. Walter “Walt” Starck’s expedition in the early 1970’s to the Solomons. (My father, Charles C. “Jock” Stevenson, had SCUBA dived with some of the members). I also knew they carried a small 1500 lb yellow “wet” submarine on their research vessel, the El Torito.

Figure 4
Dr. Walter “Walt” Starck’s research vessel El Torito moored against the cliffs at the Southern entrance to Sandfly Passage in the Florida Islands adjacent Savo Island in the early 1970’s. Note the yellow submarine on deck. This was used for dives off Savo and may have been the source of confusion in my January 1999 enquiries with the local Savo islanders. [Photo by Walter Starck, as published facing p.113 Sharks and Other Ancestors by Doak].

There is no written record/history in Melanesian culture, so history is recorded by repeated verbal renditions of events. Obviously such verbal folklore is inherently prone to interjecting errors over time which warps the verbal history record. It was quite likely the “sub” was not “found” by Walt’s expedition but was rather simply just the yellow one “used” by them. Indeed, I later confirmed the El Torito expedition did conduct submarine dives off Savo. There are few places on Savo which has significant coral reef. Most of the coastline is too exposed, and the numerous streams suppress coral growth. Kalaka is the only place with large reef areas. I was sceptical of the Savo Islander’s report that the El Torito expedition had found a submarine off Kalaka, but with a beautiful coral reef visible under the boat, why not have a nice dive looking for it? Kevin Denlay, Richard Theakston, Franck Bouley and I geared up and dropped into the beautifully clear water. The reef extended out from the South West coast of Savo near Kalaka in a South West direction. Our visual search covered the South East side, off the edge of the reef on the sand. The dive was mostly conducted at 25-30m, with maximum depth of 33m. I stayed well above the bottom, visually searching down the sand slope to an estimated 45m or more due to the good visibility. I recorded the dive in my diary as follows:

Everyone dived looking for the midget. As soon as at depth 30m or so I saw a shark but noticed Rich not looking so swam down and got his attention real quick lest he missed the shark. The shark stayed so it was great to see it. I pressed ahead and didn’t pay too much attention to it. Ian & Paul and Tuomei stayed in boats. Ian was in boat awaiting us divers. I stayed as deep as long as possible but off the bottom at edge of viz range – [visually] cover far more ground. Saw small tuna, kingfish, big GT, had two sharks around for awhile. Great dive. No one found any sub. The native diver remembered them saying they found a sub! The El Torito visited the area in early 1970’s or perhaps 1975? Amazing they cld recall it.

I later contacted Dr. Walter Starck in Australia who confirmed they never found any submarine wreck on Savo. The book Sharks and Other Ancestors: Patterns of Survival in the South Seas which was written on the expedition by Wade Doak, writes about the diving at Savo, but makes no mention of any wreckage found.

Regarding the sharks of Savo, it is common knowledge they are particularly prevalent there, collaborated by this passage from an article published in 1964 by long serving pre-war BSIP ii resident, R.J.A.W. Lever:

Sharks have always been very savage in the waters off Savo, it is thought because of the former custom of certain tribes of placing their dead in the water instead of burying them. The writer, from the safety of a government schooner, saw several active grey-nurse sharks estimated to be at least 20 feet long.

The confined coral reef areas on Savo at Kalaka naturally attract the most SCUBA diving and local spear fishing. The reefs are crucially important to the Savo Islanders for sustenance. Much underwater attention is focused on the area. The first SCUBA dives on the Kalaka Reefs were in the early 1970’s. Savo has continued to be SCUBA dived occasionally through the 1970’s until today. As the Kalaka Reefs are in the shelter of the South East trades winds, this is an added attraction. This underwater area would be the most dived and most explored of Savo’s underwater terrain. The Melanesian spear fishermen are highly skilled and regularly descend 20 meters or more to spear fish. They also spear fish almost every day to feed their families. On very clear underwater visibility days they would be able to visualize 40-50 meter deep sea floor. A protruding conning tower of a small submarine would be noticed. Considering the attention of European SCUBA divers in the area, it seems highly likely if such a site existed it would be well known today.

Savo Island reefs, like many in the third world areas today, are becoming over- exploited as food resources by local populace. Fish form a crucial part of the protein dietary intake of islanders. Access to modern medicine and better understanding of hygiene, has meant a rapidly burgeoning island population. A google earth view of Savo easily shows the population density and intensive land cultivation. All this comes at the price of the natural environment. There is only a limited area of coral reef with fish, and a limited area of land suitable for gardening. At some point, the island will run out of land for gardens and all the fish have been eaten. There are no marine or land reserves on Savo. Every square foot is exploited by islanders to survive. The issues facing Savo, we all know, are not peculiar to the island, but how can they be peacefully solved? It certainly is sad to see increasingly less habitat for the famous Savo megapode bird and coral reefs devoid of fish.

After our pleasant dive at Savo, Franck’s boat and passengers returned direct to Honiara. We motored back up the West side of Savo to return Tuomei to his home at Leqalau. On the return to Honiara across Iron Bottom Sound, my diary records the following:

Sea glassy. No wind. We speed back to HIR iii , and saw a manta ray flip and a pod of pilot whales on the surface. We slowly motored up to them & got incredibly close before they dived.

HMNZS Resolution (A14) of the Royal New Zealand Navy underwater surveys Savo Island November 2011
The New Zealand Navy’s hydrographic ship conducted a tour of the Solomons in October – November 2011 under the command of Lt. Cdr. Matt Wray. The ship’s work comprised hydrographic surveys, goodwill visits, EOD work and fisheries patrols. I was assigned to the ship in Iron Bottom Sound as historical advisor regarding identifying WWII sites found, assisting in directing sonar surveys and providing pin-point accuracy for known wrecks to be surveyed in detail. In addition, certain historical targets were proposed for locating. It was an opportunity to put a lifetime’s worth of research into WWII archaeology of the Iron Bottom Sound area to good use.

Figure 5
Southern end of Savo Island off the port bow of the HMNZS Resolution (A14) as the hydrographic ship approaches to begin the most detailed underwater sonar survey to date of Savo Island. Although Ha-30 was not the primary objective, there was every possibility it might have been discovered during the ship’s survey. [Photo by Ewan M. Stevenson].

The mission was officially christened Operation Calypso. It was a very successful expedition, with some sixty WWII and other wrecks surveyed and many new ones discovered. A large part of the success was due to the tenacity and outstanding exploratory character of the ship’s commander. The Savo area was included in survey plans. The primary targets were the Royal New Zealand Air Force C-47A Dakota NZ3521 (Site SAVO3) ditched off the Northern end of Savo and the USS Astoria (CA-34) (Site SAVO7). This necessitated focusing on the Eastern and Northern sides of Savo which the ship surveyed in detail using Reson MBES iv sonar down to 300 meters on the afternoon of November 2 and during the night of November 4.

Lt. Cdr. Matt Wray also later in the month, continued sonar searching Savo and conducted a brief sonar sweep off the West side of the island. Disappointingly, no WWII wreckage of any kind was identified in the sonar surveys off Savo Island.

Future Archaeology
Whether there is any basis for Kohyoteki 30 being sunk close offshore Kalaka is unknown. It might be worth a detailed side scan sonar or magnetometer survey in the area. Like all of Savo’s underwater topography, it drops off very quickly into exceedingly deep water. It would not take long to verify if any target was within range of SCUBA in the area.

Archaehistoria has a special interest in Kohyoteki and has researched a number of their archaeological sites. In all known cases, the 80-foot long submarines sink and come to rest upright on the bottom. This is due the inherent stability designed into the submarine. This means the submarine sail will be upright and present an excellent target for side scan sonar. From the top of the sail (encompassing access hatch) to the keel is 3.10 meters.

The pair of 18-inch Type 97 torpedoes will still be loaded, unfired. It is Archaehistoria’s recommendation that these torpedoes are defused and de-powdered and thereby rendered safe using modern EOD techniques rather than the usual brutal destruction by demolition explosive charges and consequent severe damage to a historic artefact. The technology is available to render safe and preserve these torpedoes as historic items. These torpedoes operated on the advanced kerosene/oxygen fuel mixture. Very few Type 97 torpedoes exist in museums v .

The Kohyoteki were all welded and made from 8mm cold rolled steel plates. In archaeology it is a general knowledge that saltwater submerged steel plate corrodes at a rate of roughly 0.1mm per year. This means the 8mm plating has an approximate life of 80 years. We are rapidly approaching this vintage.

How did the Ha-30 crew scuttle their mount? Did they activate a demolition charge installed like the ones used in the Hawaiian operation? Did they open valves and flooded the midget? The Kohyoteki crew could trim the submarine by using ballast tanks and it is probable they could intentionally upset the trim on the surface and sending the midget to the seafloor as they scrambled out the access hatch. Did they close the hatch behind them? An archaeological survey might find the answers to these questions.

One interesting aspect of an archaeological survey of this site might be confirming the rudder damage. How bad was the damage? Might the damage indicate what caused it? This aspect could also assist in confirming identification of the Kohyoteki as Ha-30.

If the results of a more focused instrument survey off Kalaka are negative, the subsequent search area for Ha-30 is very large and very deep. The Ha-30 was released approximately between Cape Esperance/Kamimbo Bay at the Western end of Guadalcanal and Savo Island. If Kohyoteki 30 was scuttled close to its initial launch site in this area, the search depths are 900-1200 meters. If this is the case, it is likely it will be a long time before the archaeological site of Kohyoteki 30 is discovered. In the meantime, electrolysis and galvanic corrosion will continue to deteriorate the condition of this historic artefact.

Significance

  • One of eight Kohyoteki expended during the Guadalcanal Campaign
  • One of seven Kohyoteki archaeological sites in the Iron Bottom Sound area
  • One of 52 Kohyoteki Type A built at Ourazaki, Kure. (one Type B and 36 Type C were built).
  • Ha-30 was one of 23 Kohyoteki ordered in December 1940.
  • Intact, whole, untouched site

Acknowlegments

  • The people of Savo Island, who are responsible for the management of the Savo Island WWII archaeological sites
  • Members of the Archaehistoria January 1999 Expedition to Iron Bottom Sound: Richard Theakston, Franck Bouley, Kevin Denlay, Ian Gardiner, Paul Martin.
  • Special thanks to Kevin Denlay for so generously supporting the January 1999 Archaehistoria Expedition.
  • Sgt. Gene Leslie, USMC (Ret.) for continuously supporting Archaehistoria with research materials from the USA.
  • Peter Flahavin for enthusiasm and continuous research support, particularly with photographic research.
  • R. Adm. Kazuo Ueda, JSDMF, (Ret.), President of the Japanese Midget Submarine Association
  • The commanding officer, Lt. Cdr. Matt Wray, and crew of the HMNZS Resolution (A14) during Operation Calypso, November 2011 Expedition to Iron Bottom Sound.
  • Cdr. Phil Bradshaw, RNZN
  • The Kiwi Odyssey Team: Cdr. Michael Stephens, RNZNR, Glen and Evan Christie
  • Sir Allan Kemakeza, former Prime Minister for the Solomon Islands. Thank you for your helpful assistance in January 1999. Currently serving as Speaker of the National Parliament of the Solomon Islands.
  • The lone unknown fisherman off Tasimania.

References
Cutler, Andrew.
Op Calypso. Navy Today Issue 164 (December 2011): pp. 28-29.

Wade, Doak
Sharks and Other Ancestors: Patterns of Survival in the South Seas. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975, 333pp.

Doak, Wade. (El Torito expedition)
Email correspondence April 2013

Itani, Jiro and Lengerer, Hans and Rehm-Takahara, Tomoko.
Japanese Midget Submarines: Kohyoteki Types A to C. in Warship 1993, Robert Gardiner, editor, pp. 113-129. London: Conway Maritime Press Ltd, 1993.

Gakken Vol. 35.
This is a most detailed Japanese volume on Kohyoteki.

Kazuo, Ueda, R.Adm., JMSDF. (President of now–defunct Midget Submarine Association)
1994-2000. Correspondence, publications, notes, tables on Ko-hyoteki operations during WWII.

Kemp, Paul.
Midget Submarines of the Second World War. London: Chatham Pub., 1999, 125pp.

Lever, R.J.A.W.
Savo, British Solomon Islands Protectorate. South Pacific Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 3 (July 1964): pp. 41-42.

Polmar, Norman and Carpenter, Dorr B.
Submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy 1904-1945. London: Conway Maritime Press Ltd, 1986, 176pp.

Starck, Walter. (El Torito expedition)
Email correspondence c. 2000.

Stevenson, Ewan M.
The Archaehistoria Bibliography of the Guadalcanal and Solomon Islands WWII Campaigns. Manuscript only. Auckland: Archaehistoria Publishing, 11 January 2010, 491pp.

Stevenson, Ewan M.
Notes, expedition diary, sketches, sound recordings, video, still images. For January 1999 Archaehistoria Expedition.

Stevenson, Ewan M.
Notes, expedition diary, sketches, sound recordings, video, still images. For November 2011 Archaehistoria Expedition aboard HMNZS Resolution (A14).

Stevenson, Ewan M.
SAVO. Black plastic folder. 18 September 2011. Brief sheets, survey plans and other materials relating to Savo prepared for expedition aboard HMNZS Resolution.

Wray, Matt Lt Cdr. , RNZN
Email correspondence, reports, conversations, August 2011 – 2013.

____________________________

This was later Sir Allan Kemakeza, Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands, 17 December 2001 – 20 April 2006. On a hand written note provided the author on Savo on January 7, 1999, Sir Allan Kemakeza spelt his first name “Alan”. Most sources spell it “Allan”.

British Solomon Islands Protectorate

Airline abbreviation (lingo) for Honiara, capitol of the Solomon Islands

Multi Beam Echo Sounder. Very high resolution could easily see images of planes on the seafloor.

One is on display at the Australian War Memorial Museum in Canberra. Archaehistoria would like to know of any others on display. Most are destroyed by myopic EOD efforts.

Request
If you enjoyed this report, please consider assisting Archaehistoria to do more. Archaehistoria is highly interested in any historical material, photos, postcards or original intelligence reports on Kohyoteki type Japanese midget submarines. Have you any photos of Kohyoteki on display? Have you a copy of US, British, or Australian intelligence reports/photos of Kohyoteki?

Sponsors


Dive New Zealand Magazine


Watch the video: S Killa MaJaBa. Cinge Cange Cang 2011