Who Is Cupid?

Who Is Cupid?

The mention of Cupid typically conjures up images of a cherubic infant wielding a bow and arrow, but this wasn’t always the case. Long before the Romans adopted and renamed him—and way before his association with Valentine's Day—Cupid was known to the Greeks as Eros, the handsome god of love.

One of the first authors to mention Eros (circa 700 B.C.) was Hesiod, who described him in “Theogony” as one of the primeval cosmogonic deities born of the world egg. But later accounts of the lineage of Eros vary, describing him as the son of Nyx and Erebus; or Aphrodite and Ares; or Iris and Zephyrus; or even Aphrodite and Zeus—who would have been both his father and grandfather.

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Armed with a bow and a quiver filled with both golden arrows to arouse desire and leaden arrows to ignite aversion, Eros struck at the hearts of gods and mortals and played with their emotions. In one story from ancient Greek mythology, which was later retold by Roman authors, Cupid (Eros) shot a golden arrow at Apollo, who fell madly in love with the nymph Daphne, but then launched a leaden arrow at Daphne so she would be repulsed by him.

In another allegory, Cupid’s mother, Venus (Aphrodite), became so jealous of the beautiful mortal Psyche that she told her son to induce Psyche to fall in love with a monster. Instead, Cupid became so enamored with Psyche that he married her—with the condition that she could never see his face. Eventually, Psyche’s curiosity got the better of her and she stole a glance, causing Cupid to flee in anger. After roaming the known world in search of her lover, Psyche was eventually reunited with Cupid and granted the gift of immortality.

In the poetry of the Archaic period, Eros was represented as a studly immortal who was irresistible to both man and gods. But by the Hellenistic period, he was increasingly portrayed as a playful, mischievous child. Because of his associations with love, 19th-century Victorians—credited with popularizing Valentine's Day and giving the holiday its romantic spin—began depicting this cherubic version of Cupid on Valentine’s Day cards in a trend that has persisted until this day.

READ MORE: The History of Valentine's Day


Who is Cupid? (with pictures)

Cupid, one of the gods in Roman mythology, is the force that controls erotic love. He is the Roman counterpart to the Greek god Eros. His name comes from the Latin word cupido, which translates to “passion, desire, yearning, wanting, or longing.” However, in Latin, Cupid is known as Amor. The Latin word means “love, infatuation, or passion.”

One of the few ancient gods that is still a popular part of modern society, Cupid is not regarded in quite the same way that he was in Greek and Roman times. He is widely accepted as a symbol of love, however. Currently, in Western culture, he is sort of the commercial spokesperson for Valentines day and all things romantic.

Icons of Cupid picture him shooting a bow. It is understood that the person who is struck by his arrow will be inspired to fall in love. This piece of mythology is so well known that a heart pierced by an arrow has become another symbol for love and romance.

There is some debate within mythological texts about Cupid’s lineage. The ancient poet Hesiod explains in his text Theogony that he was created by both the god Chaos and the Earth, working together. In other lineages and tales, Cupid is assigned Jupiter and Venus as parents. In yet another version of the god’s lineage, he is labeled as the son of Nyx and Erebus.

Although in modern times, Cupid is most often portrayed as a cherubic fairy devoted to the spread of love and romance, he did not have such a squeaky clean reputation among the ancients. Rather, he was believed to be a bad boy, a trouble maker. In addition to being playful, in Greek and roman mythology, he was also quite fickle and perverse. Furthermore, his ability to inspire love, it was believed, was coupled with his ability to inspire hatred. Therefore, in many paintings of Cupid, he carries two quivers of arrows, one for each purpose.

The most common mythological tale involving the god is the tale of Cupid and Psyche. The goddess Venus, jealous of Psyche, a beautiful mortal woman, asks Cupid to use one of his arrows to make Psyche fall in love with the most hideous man on earth. In the tale, Cupid accidentally pricks himself with the arrow and falls in love with Psyche, thus thwarting Venus’ plan.


What Cupid family records will you find?

There are 1,000 census records available for the last name Cupid. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Cupid census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 153 immigration records available for the last name Cupid. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 893 military records available for the last name Cupid. For the veterans among your Cupid ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 1,000 census records available for the last name Cupid. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Cupid census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 153 immigration records available for the last name Cupid. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 893 military records available for the last name Cupid. For the veterans among your Cupid ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Who Is Cupid? - HISTORY

The Story of Cupid

Cupid is the most famous of Valentine symbols. He is known as a mischievous, winged child armed with bow and arrows and is famous for piercing hearts. The arrows signifies desire and emotions of love. Cupid aims those arrows at Gods and Humans, causing them to fall deeply in love.

Cupid has always played a role in the celebration of love and lovers. In ancient Greece he was known as Eros the young son of Aphrodites, the goddess of love and beauty. To the Romans he was Cupid, and his mother was Venus.

There is a very interesting story about Cupid and His mortal Bride Psyche in Roman mythology. Venus was jealous of the beauty of Psyche, and ordered Cupid to punish the mortal. But instead, Cupid fell deeply in love with her. He took her as his wife, but as a mortal she was forbidden to look at him.

Psyche was happy until her sisters persuaded her to look at Cupid. As soon as Psyche looked at Cupid, Cupid punished her by leaving her. Their lovely castle and gardens vanished too. Psyche found herself alone in an open field with no signs of other beings or Cupid.

As she wandered trying to find her love, she came upon the temple of Venus. Wishing to destroy her, the goddess of love gave Psyche a series of tasks, each harder and more dangerous then the last.

For her last task Psyche was given a little box and told to take it to the underworld. She was told to get some of the beauty of Proserpine, the wife of Pluto, and put it in the box. During her trip she was given tips on avoiding the dangers of the realm of the dead. She was also warned not to open the box. But temptation overcame Psyche and she opened the box. But instead of finding beauty, she found deadly slumber.

Cupid found her lifeless on the ground. He gathered the deadly sleep from her body and put it back in the box. Cupid forgave her, as did Venus. The gods, moved by Psyche's love for Cupid made her a goddess.

Today, Cupid and his arrows has become the most popular of love signs, and love is most frequently depicted by two hearts pierced by an arrow. . . Cupid's arrow.

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Cupid and Psyche

Cupid and Psyche is a story originally from Metamorphoses (also called The Golden Ass), written in the 2nd century AD by Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis (or Platonicus). [2] The tale concerns the overcoming of obstacles to the love between Psyche ( / ˈ s aɪ k iː / Greek: Ψυχή , Greek pronunciation: [psyː.kʰɛ̌ː] , "Soul" or "Breath of Life") and Cupid (Latin Cupido, "Desire") or Amor ("Love", Greek Eros, Ἔρως), and their ultimate union in a sacred marriage. Although the only extended narrative from antiquity is that of Apuleius from 2nd century AD, Eros and Psyche appear in Greek art as early as the 4th century BC. The story's Neoplatonic elements and allusions to mystery religions accommodate multiple interpretations, [3] and it has been analyzed as an allegory and in light of folktale, Märchen or fairy tale, and myth. [4]

The story of Cupid and Psyche was known to Boccaccio in c. 1370, but the editio princeps dates to 1469. Ever since, the reception of Cupid and Psyche in the classical tradition has been extensive. The story has been retold in poetry, drama, and opera, and depicted widely in painting, sculpture, and even wallpaper. [5] Though Psyche is usually referred to in Roman mythology by her Greek name, her Roman name through direct translation is Anima.


Origin of the Divinities

With different names in different locations at different times, it is not surprising that variations of each god and goddess myth abound. Some historians maintain that such myths have origins in human history, but that the tales enlarge and expand with time. As an example, in some tales Cupid’s arrows were made by his father Vulcan, the god of fire. The name Vulcan is thought to come from Bel-Cain or Tubal-cain, “an instructor of every craftsman in bronze and iron” (Genesis 4:22) and a descendant of Cain.

In like manner, the humans Nimrod and Semiramis have been connected with Isis and Osiris, Ishtar and Tammuz, and other parallel deities. Tradition holds that Nimrod, a great-grandson of Noah, married Semiramis, the ambitious wife of a general in Nimrod’s Babylonian army.

Semiramis and Nimrod (sometimes called Ninus) grew in power and corruption. The book of Genesis says Nimrod became the first man of such power, a mighty hunter who built cities. It is said that he also built walls to keep out wild animals and thus protect the inhabitants. Though he gained a great following, Genesis speaks of his rebellion against God, and most believe he was the force behind the building of the Tower of Babel. Nimrod was eventually killed, after which he came to be worshiped as the sun god Marduk (Bel or Baal).

Following Nimrod’s death, Semiramis carried on alone, establishing more cities, conquering new territories, and thus building her empire. Legends surrounding her grew to show that she, too, had divine roots. She had allegedly been fed by doves after being abandoned by her mother, a fish goddess instead of dying, she assumed the form of a dove and flew to heaven.

When the widowed Semiramis became pregnant, she claimed that it was a divine conception the baby, she declared, was Nimrod himself, reborn as a god to be worshiped. The child was called Tammuz.

Sir James G. Frazer, in his classic work The Golden Bough, compares the exploits of the legendary Semiramis to those of the goddess Ishtar: “It is not merely that the myth of Ishtar thus tallies with the legend of Semiramis. . . . We can hardly doubt that the mythical Semiramis is substantially a form of Ishtar or Astarte, the great Semitic goddess of love and fertility.”


Contents

OkCupid was originally owned by Humor Rainbow, Inc. OkCupid's founders (Chris Coyne, Christian Rudder, Sam Yagan, and Max Krohn) were students at Harvard University when they gained recognition for their creation of TheSpark and, later, SparkNotes. Among other things, TheSpark.com featured a number of humorous self-quizzes and personality tests, including the four-variable Myers-Briggs style Match Test. SparkMatch debuted as a beta experiment of allowing registered users who had taken the Match Test to search for and contact each other based on their Match Test types. The popularity of SparkMatch took off and it was launched as its own site, later renamed OkCupid. In 2001, they sold SparkNotes to Barnes & Noble, and began work on OkCupid. [4]

In 2008, OkCupid spun off its test-design portion under the name Hello Quizzy (HQ), [7] while keeping it inextricably linked to OkCupid and reserving existent OkCupid users' names on HQ. [7] However, the original Dating Persona Test has since been removed.

Since August 2009, an "A-list" account option is available to users of OkCupid and provides additional services for monthly fees. [8]

In February 2011, OkCupid was acquired by IAC/InterActiveCorp, operators of Match.com, for US$50 million. [9] Editorial posts from 2010 by an OkCupid founder in which Match.com and pay-dating were criticized for exploiting users and being "fundamentally broken" were removed from the OkCupid blog at the time of the acquisition. [10] In a press response, OkCupid's CEO explained that the removal was voluntary. [11]

In November 2012, OkCupid launched the social discovery service Tallygram, [12] but retired the service in April 2013. [13]

On March 31, 2014 any user accessing OkCupid from Firefox was presented with a message asking users to boycott the internet browser due to Mozilla Corporation's new CEO Brendan Eich's support of Proposition 8. Users were asked instead to consider other browsers. [14] [15] [16] On April 2, 2014, the dating site revoked the Firefox ban. [17] [18]

The website added a bevy of nontraditional profile options for users to express their gender identity and sexuality in late 2014. These options—which included asexual, genderfluid, pansexual, sapiosexual, and transgender categories—were added to make the website more inclusive. [19] Through this addition, OkCupid popularized the concept of "sapiosexuality", meaning romance or sexual attraction based on intellectual, rather than physical, traits. [20] OkCupid removed the Sapiosexual identity on February 11, 2019, [21] following considerable negative feedback, specifically quoting an article on Vice Magazine. [22]

Rudder updated the "OkTrends" blog, which consists of "original research and insights from OkCupid," for the first time in three years in July 2014. Entitled "We Experiment On Human Beings!," the post discusses three experiments run by the website without the knowledge of users. Rudder defends the involuntary experiment, claiming the practice is widespread: ". if you use the Internet, you're the subject of hundreds of experiments at any given time, on every site. That's how websites work." [23]

Despite being a platform designed to be less centered on physical appearance, [20] OkCupid co-founder Christian Rudder stated in 2009 that the male OkCupid users who were rated most physically attractive by female OkCupid users received 11 times as many messages as the lowest-rated male users did, the medium-rated male users received about four times as many messages, and the one-third of female users who were rated most physically attractive by the male users received about two-thirds of all messages sent by male users. [24] Additionally, a study published in the August 2018 edition of Science Advances by researchers at the University of Michigan and the Santa Fe Institute found that users of an unnamed, popular, and free online dating service in New York City, Boston, Chicago, and Seattle typically pursued potential partners ranked on average 25 percent more desirable than they were (as measured by the PageRank algorithm). [25] Coupled with data released by the dating app Tinder showing that only 26 million of the 1.6 billion swipes that the app records per day actually result in matches (despite users spending on average about an hour and a half per day on the app), an article published in the December 2018 issue of The Atlantic concluded "Unless you are exceptionally good-looking, the thing online dating may be best at is sucking up large amounts of time." [24]

2014 experimenting on users Edit

In 2014, OkCupid revealed in a blog post that experiments were routinely conducted on OkCupid users. [26] The site revealed that one experiment included removing users' profile pictures on January 15, 2013 ("Love is Blind Day") and analyzed user responses to messages, conversations, and contact details. When the photos were restored, users who had started "blind" conversations gradually began tapering off their conversations, leading OkCupid's CEO Christian Rudder to remark "it was like we'd turned on the bright lights at the bar at midnight". [26] In a separate A/B test, OkCupid used a placebo number instead of users' true match percentage. The results suggested that doing this caused users, who were "bad matches" under the original algorithm, to actually like each other: "When we tell people they are a good match, they act as if they are." [23]

The revelation that OkCupid conducted these experiments on users led to criticism. Rudder attempted to defend the company, in part by suggesting that it would be unethical not to experiment on users:

I think part of what's confusing people about this experiment is the result . this is the only way to find this stuff out [what actually works for a dating site], if you guys have an alternative to the scientific method I'm all ears. [27]

2016 data scraping and release Edit

In May 2016, a team of Danish researchers have made publicly available the "OkCupid dataset" project, containing (as of May 2016) 2,620 variables describing 68,371 users on OkCupid for research purposes (e.g., for psychologists investigating the social psychology of dating). [28] The data release spurred criticism, [29] and an investigation by the Danish Data Protection Authority. [30]

2017 switch to using real names from pseudonyms and subsequent backpedal Edit

In December 2017, OkCupid rolled out a change that would require users to provide their real first name, in place of a pseudonym as was previously encouraged. Although the company quickly backpedaled, saying that nicknames or initials would be acceptable. [31] The announcement was received by widespread criticism and condemnation for potentially raising the risk of harassment of individuals, especially women, and minorities [32] [33] to doxing. [34] It was pointed out that, unlike other dating sites that encourage the use of first names, OkCupid "encourages long profiles full of intimate details, including candid answers to questions about sex and politics", making connecting that information with a real name more problematic to users. [35]

Profile censorship Edit

In 2017 OkCupid reported on Twitter that they had removed Christopher Cantwell's user profile for being a white supremacist after a woman reported receiving a message from him. This raised questions from some users who wondered about the ease with which the company could eliminate users from its platform. [36] [37] [38] [39]

User photos for data mining Edit

Clarifai, an A.I. start-up, built a face database with images from OkCupid, due to common founders in both companies. [40]

2019 alleged credential stuffing incident Edit

A February 2019 report alleged that many users reported lost access to their accounts in a manner consistent with either a data breach or a widespread "credential stuffing" incident. "Credential stuffing" describes using passwords stolen from one service (like another dating site) to attack another service, on the assumption that many people will reuse passwords across websites. OkCupid denied any data breach or system errors. [41]

OkCupid claimed 3.5 million active users as of September 2010. According to Compete.com, the website attracted 1.3 million unique visitors in February 2011. [42]

The site used to have a highly active journal/blogging community as well. Journals are not available to new members and the feature is now "retired." Members have the option of saving favorite user profiles, which display the favorited person's responses to questions and profile updates on the member's front page. [ citation needed ]

Any adult may join the site and all users may communicate with others via private messages or an instant messaging "chat" function. OkCupid was the first major dating site to offer unlimited messaging free of charge, [ citation needed ] although this was limited in late 2017 when OkCupid's official blog announced the site is "getting rid of open-messaging" and making sent messages invisible to the recipient until they in turn interact with the sender. [43] A-List (paying) members see no advertising and have more filtering options and preferential placement in an "A-List Matches" section of search results. A-list members can also browse openly while choosing whether or not their profile is displayed to those they visited. [44]

In early May 2020, OKCupid removed the match search function for some users, including all those in Australia and including A-list subscribers. Following complaints, it has had to reimburse Australian users but, regardless of past complaints, implemented the removal for all users in July 2020.

OkTrends, the official blog of OkCupid, presents statistical observations from OkCupid user interactions, to explore data from the online dating world.

Amid the coronavirus pandemic, OkCupid reported a 23.4% decrease in monthly active users in the final quarter of 2020. [45]

To generate matches, OkCupid applies data generated by users' activities on the site, [46] as well as their answers to questions. When answering a question, a user indicates their own answer, the answers they would accept from partners, and the level of importance they place on the question. The results of these questions can be made public. OkCupid describes in detail the algorithm used to calculate match percentages. [ citation needed ] Assuming a user is a paid user ("A-List"), the site notifies a user if someone likes that user.


Cupid

If you mention ‘Cupid’ to just about anybody, they will tell you he is the God of Love, but how much do we really know that is fact rather than fiction.

Who is Cupid

In Latin, Cupid goes by two names that have different origins, but whose meanings are both associated with love. One of Cupid’s Roman names is Cupido. This form means ‘desire.’ If we stop to think about it, regardless of our age, the people we love deeply are ones we enjoy and desire to be with as much as possible. Cupid’s other Latin name is ‘Amor’. For students enrolled in Latin I, this is one of the very first verbs (amo) that we learn to conjugate.

Two of the major planets in our solar system bear the names of Cupid’s mother Venus and his father Mars. Although Cupid is never seen, when the weather conditions are exactly right, both of these planets can be seen in the sky after dark or whenever a planetarium is open to visitors.

In Greek Mythology, Cupid was known as ‘Eros‘ who was portrayed as a slender young boy with wings however, following the Hellenistic Age that ended about 31BC when Rome conquered Greece, he was portrayed as the chubby little boy we are most familiar with especially around Valentine’s Day.

In both Greek and Roman Mythology, Cupid always had a bow and arrow which he used to shoot the power of love wherever he wanted it to go. Some early artists pictured Cupid as being blindfolded. According to Shakespeare, the reason was because as a chubby little boy, Cupid often changed his feelings about things especially those having to do with love.

Although Cupid is portrayed with a bow and arrow, most people don’t know that he actually had two arrows or perhaps one arrow with two very different tips. If he fired the gold one which had a very sharp tip, the female heart where it landed was immediately filled with love and the desire to be with a certain male forever. Shakespeare’s words about Cupid changing his mind apply to the blindfolded Cupid and his use of the blunt-tipped lead arrow. Whether male or female, when the lead tip struck a heart the message was that one person in the relationship wanted to end it and be free from that person forever so another relationship could be started.

If an assignment gives you the opportunity to write about love, it would be interesting to interview different people, especially those who are married, to learn how many are in a relationship with the very first male or female they fell in love with.

According to some writings, Cupid personally experienced the pain associated with the lead arrow as a child. According to this account, as a small boy Cupid tried to get some honey out of a bee hive and was stung in the process. Of course, the first person Cupid wanted help and comfort from was his mother.

Even in today’s world when we experience pain although lots of people around us offer help and comfort, the person we truly want to be with is our mother because we believe nobody’s help or comfort has the power of love that hers does.

In one account, Cupid had a girlfriend named Psyche who led a very lonely life because none of her female friends liked her and none of the male gods paid any attention to her until she met Eros. Despite the fact that they were both very lonely, according to the story they lived happily ever after together.

Some Facts About Cupid

Many experts in the world of folktales and movies believe that the currently popular “Beauty and The Beast” is a modern day version of the story of Cupid and Psyche. While Cupid is always shown with wings, Psyche whose name means ‘soul’ is depicted as a beautiful butterfly.

To please her mother, Psyche was given the task of finding her way to an underworld cave where she was to locate a special treasure box and bring it back to Venus. On the way back, Psyche opened the box because of her selfish desire to be loved and was immediately struck dead. When Cupid found her he struck her with a golden arrow which brought her back to life so she could become his wife.

Cupid and Psyche are said to have had a daughter who was given the name Voluptas meaning ‘pleasure.’

How Cupid Relates To Today’s World

In addition to all the Valentine’s Day cards, decorations and other things associated with February 14th the Day of Love, several musicians have written songs about Cupid. One song in particular ended up being ranked as number 452 on the Rolling Stone list of “500 Greatest Songs of All Time.” The song was written in 1961 by R&B artist Sam Cooke.

The most often remembered part of the lyrics goes
“Cupid Draw back your bow
And let your arrow go
Straight to my lover’s heart for me.”

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A God and a Mortal: Cupid (Eros) and Psyche

The iconic Cupid with his baby-fat hands clenching his bow and arrows is all too familiar with Valentine's Day cards. Even during the Classical period, people described Cupid as a sometimes mischievous and precocious ancient baby, but this is quite a step down from his original exalted heights. Originally, Cupid was known as Eros (love). Eros was a primordial being, thought to have arisen out of Chaos, along with Tartarus the Underworld and Gaia the Earth. Later Eros became associated with the love goddess Aphrodite, and he is often spoken of as Aphrodite's son Cupid, most notably in the myth of Cupid and Psyche.

Cupid shoots his arrows into humans and immortals alike causing them to fall in love or hate. One of Cupid's immortal victims was Apollo.

Psyche is the Greek word for soul. Psyche's introduction to mythology is late, and she wasn't a goddess of the soul until late in life, or rather when she was made immortal after her death. Psyche, not as the word for soul, but as the divine mother of Pleasure (Hedone) and wife of Cupid is known from the second century CE.