Prenomen of Thutmose II

Prenomen of Thutmose II


The Marseille Stele

The Marseille Stele, also known as The Offering Table of Qenhirkhopshef, was originally located in the Karnak Temple complex at Luxor. It was likely made in the reign of the Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh Merenptah or his son Seti II. The 34 cartouches contain 30 royal names of 17 pharaohs, of which four are the (omitted) names of Ahmose's mother and wife (numbers 8, 9, 33, and 34). It now resides at the museum Musée d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne (Inventory Number 204) in Marseille, France, from which it is named.
It measures 39.5 × 34 × 15 cm (15.5 × 13 × 5.9 inches).

Note: Cartouche 14 contains Aa-kheperu-en-ra which can only be a variant of Aa-kheperu-ra, the prenomen of Amenhotep II. The prenomen of Thutmose II (Aa-kheper-en-ra), is already present (12 and 24).

#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
1, 21 User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Ramesses II
2 Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses II
3 Senakht en Ra
snḫt.n-rꜤ
Senakhtenra
4 Seqen en Ra
sḳn.n-rꜤ
Seqenenra
5 Wadj kheper Ra
wꜢḏ-ḫpr-rꜤ
Kamose
6, 31 Neb hapet Ra
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
Mentuhotep II
7 Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
Ahmose I
10, 30 Aa kheper ka Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Thutmose I
11, 23 Men kheper Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ
Thutmose III
12, 24 Aa kheper en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-n-rꜤ
Thutmose II
13 Djoser ka Ra
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Amenhotep I
14 Aa kheperu en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫprw-n-rꜤ
Amenhotep II
15, 25 Men kheperu en Ra
mn-ḫprw-n-rꜤ
Thutmose IV
16, 29 Neb Maat Ra
nb-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Amenhotep III
17, 26 Djoser kheperu en Ra
ḏsr-ḫprw-n-rꜤ
Horemheb
18, 27 Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Ramesses I
19, 28 Men Maat Ra
mn-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Seti I
20 Usiri Seti mery en Ptah
wsiri sti mri.n-ptḥ
Seti II
22 Amenhotep
imn-ḥtp
Amenhotep I
32 Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses II

Thutmose II

Hieroglyphs, the throne name of Thutmose II (Aakheperenre) on an obelisk on the last floor of the Temple of Hatshepsut, on Luxor’s west bank, Egypt.

Cartouche of Thutmose II at Buhen

Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis, or Tuthmosis II and meaning Thoth is Born) was the fourth Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He built some minor monuments and initiated at least two minor campaigns but did little else during his rule and was probably strongly influenced by his wife, Hatshepsut. His reign is generally dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. Thutmose II’s body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Thutmose II might never have ruled Egypt but for the early death of Wadjmose and Amenmose, the eldest sons of Thutmose I, leaving him as the only heir. He became the fourth ruler of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty. He was apparently the oldest son of Mutnefert, a minor royal queen of Thutmose I, who was herself the sister of Thutmose I’s principal queen, Ahmose.

Dates & Length of Reign

Manetho’s Epitome calls Thutmose “Chebron” (which is a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 years because his highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela. The reign length of King Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated topic among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a 13 years reign is preferred by older scholars while newer scholars prefer a shorter 3 – 4 years reign for this king due to the minimal amount of scarabs and monuments attested under Thutmose II. It is still possible to estimate when Thutmose II’s reign would have begun by means of a heliacal rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I’s reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 BC to 1479 BC, although uncertainty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 BC to 1499 BC, and uncertanty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479.

Argument for a Short Reign

Ineni, who was already aged by the start of Thutmose II’s reign, lived through this ruler’s entire reign into that of Hatshepsut. In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king’s reign when dated documents are not available, is nearly impossible because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and Thutmose III in turn reinscribed Thutmose II’s name indiscriminately over other monuments. However, apart from several surviving blocks of buildings erected by the king at Semna, Kumma and Elephantine, Thutmose II’s only major monument consists of a limestone gateway at Karnak that once lay at the front of the Fourth Pylon’s forecourt. Even this monument was not completed in Thutmose II’s reign but in the reign of his son Thutmose III which hints at “the nearly ephemeral nature of Thutmose II’s reign.” The gateway was later dismantled and its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III. In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study which statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant that altering their names would be impractical and without profit hence, they provide a far better insight into this period. Hatshepsut’s reign is believed to have been for 21 years and 9 months. Gabolde highlighted, in his analysis, the consistently small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Thutmose I and Hatshepsut respectively for instance, Flinders Petrie’s older study of scarab seals noted 86 seals for Thutmose I, 19 seals for Thutmose II and 149 seals for Hatshepsut while more recent studies by Jaeger estimate a total of 241 seals for Thutmose I, 463 seals for Hatshepsut and only 65 seals for Thutmose II. Hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the king’s reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II’s reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years, respectively. Consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign.

Argument for a Long Reign

King Thutmose’s reign is still traditionally given 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni’s autobiography can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose a “hawk in the nest,” indicating that he was perhaps a child when he assumed the throne. Since he lived long enough to father two children, Neferure and Thutmose III. This suggests that he may have had a longer reign of 13 years in order to reach adulthoood and start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13-year reign for Thutmose II. Alan Gardiner noted that at one point, a monument had been identified by Georges Daressy in 1900 which was dated to Thutmose’s 18th year, although its precise location has not been identified. This inscription is now usually attributed to Hatshepsut, who certainly did have an 18th year. von Beckerath observes that a Year 18 date appears in a fragmentary inscription of an Egyptian official and notes that the date likely refers to Hatshepsut’s prenomen Maatkare, which had been altered from Aakheperenre Thutmose II, with the reference to the deceased Thutmose II being removed. There is also the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16 which von Beckerath believes occurred 30 years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the main source of her claim to power. This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose II’s reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I’s rule.

In order to strengthen his position and legitimize his rule, he was married to Hatshepsut, the oldest daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose. She was very possibly older then Thutmose II. During this period, Hatshepsut also carried the title, “God’s Wife of Amun”, a position she may have had even before the death of Thutmose I. Hatshepsut would have been both Thutmose II’s half sister and cousin. In the light of history she became a much better known pharaoh then her husband.

We believe that Thutmose II had only one son by a harem girl named Isis (or Iset). However, Thutmose III would have to wait to rule Egypt until after Hatshepsut death. Thutmose II must have realized the ambitions of his wife, because he attempted to foster the ascent of his son to the throne by naming his son as his successor before he died. But upon Thutmose II’s death, his son was still very young, so Hatshepsut took advantage of the situation by at first naming herself as regent, and then taking on the full regalia of the pharaoh. He may have also had as many as two daughters by Hatshepsut. We are fairly sure one of them was named Neferure and another possible daughter named Neferubity.

We know that Thutmose II was a physically week person, and many Egyptologists speculate that even during his rule, Hatshepsut may have been the real power behind the throne.

We believe that Thutmose II (Born of the God Thoth) which was his birth name (called by the Greeks), ruled for about fourteen years before dying in his early thirties. However, recent scholars wish to have his rule shortened to three years. He is also sometimes called Thutmose II, or Thutmosis II and his throne name was A-kheper-en-re., which means “Great is the Form of Re”. The Oxford History of Egypt places his reign from 1492-1479, while the Chronicle of the Pharaohs provides dates of 1518 to 1504. Aidan Dodson’s Monarchs of the Nile gives his reign as 1491-1479 BC.

We know that he sent campaigns to Palestine and Nubia, attested to by a short inscription in the temple at Deir el-Bahari and a rock-cut stele at Sehel south of Aswan. We are told that he had to crush a revolt in Nubia in his first year and that this bought about the demise of the kingdom of Kush at Kerma. Apparently, to punish the Kushites for their rebelion, he had everyone put to death with the exception of a royal son, who was bought back to Egypt as a hostage. We are told that the Palestine campaign was against the Shosu Bedouin in the region of Nahrin. However, the term Shosu may also refer to Nubians, and some Egyptologists believe that this reference really relates to the campaign in Nubia.

We also have evidence of Thutmose II’s building projects. Traces of a temple built by him have been found just north of the temple of Medinet Habu on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). This small temple, known as Shespet-ankh (Chapel of Life), was finished by his son, Thutmose III. He also had built a pylon shaped limestone gateway in front of the Fourth Pylons forecourt at Karnak which also had to be completed by Thutmose III. The material from this gate and another limestone structure were later reused in the building of Karnak’s Third Pylon foundation.

However, the gate has since been rebuilt in Karnak’s Open Air Museum. Scenes on the gate sometimes depict Thutmose II with Hatshepsut, and sometimes Hatshepsut alone. On one side of the gate, Thutmose II is shown receiving crowns, while other scenes depict his daughter, Nefrure and Hatshepsut receiving life from the gods. We also know of a building project in Nubia at Semna and Kumma, and surviving blocks from his buildings at Elephantine. A statue of Thutmose II was found at Elephantine that was probably commissioned by Hatshepsut.

Mummy

Thutmose II’s mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st Dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elboww joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body. All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests:

“He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power.”


Hatshepsut

Educated at the University of Cambridge, Stephanie Aulsebrook has a PhD in the Late Bronze Age archaeology of Greece. Her research interests also include the wider East Mediterranean basin during the same period. She was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at IASH and is currently working on the publication of an important prehistoric cult building at the UNESCO-listed archaeological site of Mycenae. She also likes cats (almost to the same extent as the Ancient Egyptians).

In Ancient Egypt the fifth pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty was a woman, Hatshepsut. Clever and ambitious, she overcame the difficulty of being a female king by combining her acknowledged femininity with traditional (male) pharaonic representation. As the embodiment of Egyptian state power, she was without doubt a formidably dangerous woman. A campaign of violent destruction to eradicate her memory led to suggestions that the existence of this female king was considered transgressive. But was it her gender that led to Hatshepsut being considered a danger to the cherished cosmological order of Egypt?

Hatshepshut, born around 1507 BC, was the daughter of pharaoh Thutmose I and Ahmose, who amongst his many wives was the official queen or Great Royal Wife. Hatshepsut was Great Royal Wife to her father’s successor, Thutmose II. He was also Hatshepsut’s half-brother, the offspring of a less prestigious wife. During her father’s reign Hatshepsut was made the highest-ranked priestess in the cult of one of the chief Egyptian deities, Amun. With these titles came associated duties and privileges, and as a royal Hatshepsut would have owned and controlled large estates and workshops. Therefore Hatshepsut was high in the political and religious hierarchy of Egypt court with a substantial input into its governance.

Her husband’s reign was brief, although they had a daughter together, Neferure. Upon the death of Thutmose II his very young son, by another wife, was declared Thutmose III and Hatshepsut appointed co-regent. A contemporary stele stated:

‘[The King] went up to heaven and was united with the gods. His son took his place as King of the Two Lands (Egypt) and he was the sovereign on the throne of his father. His sister, the God’s Wife Hatshepsut, dealt with the affairs of the state: the Two Lands were under her government and taxes were paid to her.’

This arrangement was uncommon, but not unprecedented. Co-regency was used to protect the succession. Usually the incumbent pharaoh promoted their chosen successor to rule alongside them, ensuring an orderly transition the co-regent was treated as a second pharaoh. Appointing a co-regent whilst the pharaoh was a child was accepted practice although infrequently required. In this case the co-regent was not made pharaoh and stepped down when the child-pharaoh reached maturity. It is not known whether, when declared as co-regent, Hatshepsut harboured further ambitions. Yet within the first seven years of the co-regency, perhaps even sooner, Hatshepsut was pharaoh.

Hatshepsut was not the first female pharaoh. Three centuries earlier Queen Sobekneferu of the 12th Dynasty became pharaoh. Her reign was short and unfortunately very little is known about her. Other earlier female pharaohs have been postulated, but the evidence for their status and even existence is scant. Hatshepsut stands out because of the way she inserted herself into the succession by bending contemporary political norms and her subsequent treatment after death.

To be pharaoh was not simply to rule the Egyptian state. There was more to it than making policy decisions or public appearances. Egyptians believed the pharaoh’s chief role was to maintain ma’at. This complex concept of cosmological order, encompassing truth, goodness and justice, was embodied by Egypt itself as well as by a goddess named ma’at. All Egyptians were charged with this responsibility but only the pharaoh, through their divine nature, could intercede directly with the gods. To be pharaoh was to be Egypt’s spiritual protector, guarding its people against chaos. By declaring herself pharaoh, Hatshepsut moved beyond the considerable power she already wielded as co-regent to assume the mantle of ultimate divine authority.

Hatshepsut needed to legitimise her claim. We can see how she achieved this through the reliefs, steles and sculptures commissioned for her impressive monuments. Deciding against using her husband as the basis for her claim, she declared herself chosen by the god Amun and her father, Thutmose I. Hatshepsut rewrote history by inventing a co-regency between herself and her father. She also adopted for herself the standard pharaonic fiction of a divine procreation.

Upon accession, pharaohs acquired several new names. Hatshepsut’s new pharaonic names were carefully selected to incorporate references to her father and various goddesses especially ma’at. For example, part of her new prenomen, ‘true one of the ka (spirit) of Re’, was, due to the feminine word construction, spelt the same as ma’at. This clever wordplay, impossible for male pharaohs, repeated the structure used by Sobekneferu for her prenomen and may have been a deliberate nod to this earlier female king.

Hatshepsut was a prolific monument builder. Pharaohs used this type of self-aggrandizement to justify their rule. Hatshepsut used forms popularised by earlier kings and placed her monuments by those of particularly celebrated pharaohs, grounding her status within Egypt’s architectural traditions. Her main focus was elaborating the religious complex at Karnak, dedicated to the god she regarded as her divine father, Amun.

Perhaps the most famous material expression of Hatshepsut’s concept of the female king is how she chose to visually represent her physical form. Early depictions followed conventions for queens. Then came a significant shift: Hatshepsut’s female body was given male pharaonic accoutrements including headdress and beard. Later statues are indistinguishable from those of male pharaohs, but their inscriptions use feminine forms. Hatshepsut was not pretending to be male but became confident enough to use the classic tropes of pharaonic imagery: this was a statement that she was at the height of her power. This male/female dualism was not new. Male pharaohs incorporated visual aspects of female goddesses when appropriate. The pharaoh embodied unity, whether that was the union between Upper and Lower Egypt (hence reference to Egypt as the Two Lands) or male and female. Hatshepsut combined both in a unique fashion still firmly set within traditional Egyptian imagery.

Hatshepsut continued the pharaonic tradition of military and diplomatic expeditions. She used an expedition to the Kingdom of Punt as an opportunity to bring back exotic materials and goods, such as myrhh trees, for dedication to her divine father Amun. Reliefs of Hatshepsut showed her as a sphinx trampling her enemies. Potential internal enemies were also warned of the dangers of opposing Hatshepsut:

‘He who shall do her homage shall live, he who shall speak evil in blasphemy of her Majesty shall die.’

Loyalty to the pharaoh was obligatory to maintain ma’at. To judge by the splendour of some of her officials’ tombs, Hatshepsut also generously rewarded those with faith in her kingship.

What happened to Thutmose III during this time? It seems that, though Hatshepsut’s actions meant he played a junior role, their relationship was amicable. Hatshepsut trusted him enough to make him head of the army. Her monuments emphasised his inferior role: she was mentioned more frequently, shown standing in front of him, depicted with the prestigious ‘double crown’ more often and in one scene, he is shown worshipping her and the powerful goddess Hathor. At no time did Hatshepsut deny Thutmose III was co-regent or seek to replace him, but by becoming pharaoh she rejected the expected path for temporary co-regents.

Hatshepsut died in her fifties. Originally buried alongside her father, Thutmose I, her body was moved when a new tomb was created for him. Her mummy has only recently been identified, and analysis appears to show that she suffered from diabetes and probably died of bone cancer.

After her death, Thutmose III had a long and successful reign. Hatshepsut’s legacy was accepted for two decades without difficulty. Attitudes changed when Thutmose III appointed his son, Amenhotep II, as co-regent. Hatshepsut was suddenly recast as a dangerous liability. A brutal campaign of destruction and mutilation took place at many of her greatest monuments. Her cartouche was hacked out of inscriptions, her image chipped off reliefs and sculptures of her were either toppled or had the male pharaonic elements removed. This assault on her physical memory was not extensive many smaller monuments were left intact. They targeted the largest and most impressive of her architectural achievements where Hatshepsut was most publically visible and therefore at her most dangerous. The severity of this action was only matched by the treatment meted out two centuries later to the heretic king, Akhenaten, whose religious reforms shook Egyptian society.

For a while, many Egyptologists assumed this vindictive action was undertaken by Thutmose III in retaliation for being forced into the humiliating position of junior co-regent to a woman. However, this theory doesn’t account for the timing of the destruction – why wait all those years? It also doesn’t tally with the apparently amicable relationship between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III throughout the co-regency.

Generally scholars, particularly during the mid 20th century, were quick to blame Hatshepsut’s gender for what they perceived as her failings. Her use of male body imagery was suggested as an attempt to deceive Egyptian society, in an apparently analogous way to the Pope Joan legend. Some depicted her as scheming and overly-ambitious, wrestling power away from the rightful king. Hatshepsut was even criticised for failing to pursue suitably militaristic policies due to her femininity. Others focused upon finding the real (male) power behind the throne – a favourite candidate was her Royal Steward, Senenmut.

Some arguments were made from a position of ignorance further excavation has uncovered more evidence concerning Hatshepsut’s reign. It has demonstrated that Hatshepsut followed a path of kingship very similar to the most celebrated male pharaohs. Other arguments, however, betray preconceptions about the role of women in Ancient Egypt, ideas not borne out by the evidence. In comparison to contemporary societies Egyptian women had better legal rights, a greater role in public life, participated more widely in economic activities and were given the same payments or privileges as men for performing the same task. Female overseers, governors and judges are attested. Of course, Ancient Egypt was not a female utopia, but neither can it be shown that a female pharaoh was considered inherently dangerous. No equivalent measures were taken to erase the name of Sobekneferu or any other female pharaoh. Sons were favoured over daughters for the succession, but a male pharaoh was clearly highly desirable, not essential.

So, why was so much effort taken to desecrate Hatshepsut’s achievements and obliterate her name? The answer is because Hatshepsut was dangerous to Thutmose III and Amenhotep II, not because of her gender but because she had demonstrated the power non-pharaonic royals could wield. Amenhotep II was, like his father and grandfather, also the son of a less prestigious wife, and his mother was not royal. His legitimacy had to be secured against family rivals. This fear may explain why Amenhotep II decided against recording his queens’ names he hoped such action could prevent the same problem arising for his own successor. This strategy was unsuccessful – a younger son usurped his chosen successor. Nor did it prevent the accession of another female pharaoh just over a century after the reign of Hatshepsut.

That the eradication of Hatshepsut’s name was intended to protect Amenhotep II explains why it happened after he became co-regent. Hatshepsut’s officials were probably deceased by this point, removing a possible source of dissent. The destruction of her memory was not a vindictive frenzy borne of misogyny but a coldly calculated political act, advantageous to her immediate successors.

Hatshepsut’s modern reception remains mixed. On many occasions her life is judged by standards not applied to male pharaohs Hatshepsut’s Wikipedia entry almost immediately commences with speculation about her relationship with her Royal Steward, presented as a motive for her rise to power. Others have been able to celebrate her achievements on their own merit and accept Hatshepsut as one of the most successful pharaohs to rule Ancient Egypt, male or female. For example, during the Cairo metro construction project her name was used for the tunnel boring machine in honour of her grand infrastructure developments. Forced to confront the ideological challenges of ascending to the throne through unconventional means and of being a female king, Hatshepsut proved herself dangerously capable of controlling the complex politics of Ancient Egypt to fulfil the role of the pharaoh.

Further reading

Grimal, Nicolas (Ian Shaw, transl.). 1992. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford and Cambridge (Massachusetts): Blackwell

Shaw, Ian. (ed.) 2000. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Cartouches 2

Again, some 20 years ago, in the Shrines of Thutmose III, Luxor
Although apparently built by Hatshepsut, There are many Cartouches of Ramesses II on the colums and lintels.
There were also these. One bears a similarity ti that of Ramesses but not the other.
I'd appreciate your suggestions.
Stay safe, one and all and look out for your neighbours.
TIA
Fof

AlpinLuke

Again, some 20 years ago, in the Shrines of Thutmose III, Luxor
Although apparently built by Hatshepsut, There are many Cartouches of Ramesses II on the colums and lintels.
There were also these. One bears a similarity ti that of Ramesses but not the other.
I'd appreciate your suggestions.
Stay safe, one and all and look out for your neighbours.
TIA
Fof
View attachment 28302 View attachment 28303

AlpinLuke

It was rare that two Monarchs used the same Throne Name and this happened at a great temporal distance. Keep in mind that the inhabitants of KmT [Ancient Egypt] used to know their Sovereigns with their Throne Name [Sedge and Bee], not with their Birth Name. So he was Kheperkara for them.

When this happened in a succession, usually the Monarch was the same . like when Neferkheperure Amenhotep became Neferkheperure Akhenaten or when Nebkheperure Tutankhaten became Nebkheperure Tutankhamen.


Family

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He may married his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. His armies stopped rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins. But these campaigns were led by the king&aposs Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often seen as evidence that Thutmose II was still a child at his when he became king. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, and a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule. Domestic and foreign policies were similar and she claimed that her father wanted them to rule together. She is pictured in several scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II&aposs reign, both together with her husband and alone. [1] She later had herself crowned Pharaoh several years into the rule of her husband&aposs young successor Thutmose III. "The queen&aposs agents actually replaced the boy king&aposs name in a few places with her own cartouches" on the gateway. [2]

The ancient historian Manetho wrote that Thutmose II ruled for 13 years. This figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some modern historians believe he ruled for only three years. [3]


Contents

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He may married his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. His armies stopped rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins. But these campaigns were led by the king's Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often seen as evidence that Thutmose II was still a child at his when he became king. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, and a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule. Domestic and foreign policies were similar and she claimed that her father wanted them to rule together. She is pictured in several scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign, both together with her husband and alone. Ώ] She later had herself crowned Pharaoh several years into the rule of her husband's young successor Thutmose III. "The queen's agents actually replaced the boy king's name in a few places with her own cartouches" on the gateway. ΐ]

The ancient historian Manetho wrote that Thutmose II ruled for 13 years. This figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some modern historians believe he ruled for only three years. Α]


Throne name (prenomen)

The pharaoh's throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, with the title nsw-bity (nesu-bity, nesw-bit, nswt-bjtj). It means "S/He of the Sedge and Bee". This is often translated as "King of Upper and of Lower Egypt", as the sedge and bee were symbols for Upper and Lower Egypt. ΐ]

The term nsw-bity may be from the Berber word for "strong man ruler".(Schneider 1993)

The epithet neb tawy, "Lord of the Two Lands", meaning the valley and delta regions of Egypt was also often used.


Burial [ edit ]

Excavation work in the looted NRT V Tanite tomb of Shoshenq III revealed the presence of two sarcophagi: one inscribed for Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III and the other being an anonymous sarcophagus. The unmarked sarcophagus, however, ‘was clearly a secondary introduction’ according to its position in the tomb. ⎗] In the Tanite tomb's debris, several fragments were found from one or two canopic jars bearing the cartouches of a Hedjkheperre Shoshenq. Rohl had pointed out that the Staatliche Museum in Berlin possessed a canopic chest for Hedjkheperre Shoshenq I and that these jars from the tomb of Shoshenq III were too large to fit inside the Berlin canopic chest. Rohl ‘used the evidence of the jars as the key element of his theory that there were indeed two Hedjkheperre Shoshenqs’. Ε] Dodson noted that the Tanite canopic vessels bear the name ‘Hedjkheperre-Setpenre-meryamun-sibast-netjerheqaon’ and, since the epithet netjerheqaon ('god ruler of Heliopolis') was never employed by the 22nd Dynasty kings until the reign of Shoshenq III, this is clear evidence that the new Shoshenq IV was buried in Shoshenq III's Tanite tomb and must have succeeded this king. ⎘] It also establishes that the king buried in the second sarcophagus in Shoshenq III's tomb was certainly not Shoshenq I. Dodson was initially reluctant to accept Rohl's proposal for a second Hedjkheperre Shoshenq but his own research into the archaeological evidence led him to revise his opinion:

“Having implicitly rejected such a conclusion in 1986, further study of the canopic fragments as part of my general treatment of royal canopics has now led me rather to support the existence of two Shoshenqs with the prenomen Hedjkheperre.” Ε]


Aakheperenre Thutmose II, Pharaoh of Egypt

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a lesser son of Thutmose I and chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. While he successfully put down rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins, these campaigns were specifically carried out by the king's Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies which were later pursued under her reign and because of her claim that she was her father’s intended heir. She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign both together with her husband and alone.[1] She later had herself crowned Pharaoh several years into the rule of her husband's young successor Thutmose III this is confirmed by the fact that "the queen's agents actually replaced the boy king's name in a few places with her own cartouches" on the gateway.[2]

[edit]Dates and length of reign

Manetho's Epitome refers to Thutmose II as "Chebron" (which is a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 years because his highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela.[3] The reign length of Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated topic among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a 13-year reign is preferred by older scholars while newer scholars prefer a shorter 3-4 year reign for this king due to the minimal amount of scarabs and monuments attested under Thutmose II. It is still possible to estimate when Thutmose II's reign would have begun by means of a heliacal rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I's reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 BC to 1479 BC,[4] although uncertainty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 BC to 1499 BC,[5] and uncertainty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479.[6][7]

[edit]Argument for a short reign

Ineni, who was already aged by the start of Thutmose II's reign, lived through this ruler's entire reign into that of Hatshepsut.[8] In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not available, is nearly impossible because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and Thutmose III in turn reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments.[9] However, apart from several surviving blocks of buildings erected by the king at Semna, Kumma and Elephantine, Thutmose II's only major monument consists of a limestone gateway at Karnak that once lay at the front of the Fourth Pylon's forecourt. Even this monument was not completed in Thutmose II's reign but in the reign of his son Thutmose III which hints at "the nearly ephemeral nature of Thutmose II's reign."[10] The gateway was later dismantled and its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III.[11]In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study which statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut.[12] While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant that altering their names would be impractical and without profit hence, they provide a far better insight into this period. Hatshepsut's reign is believed to have been for 21 years and 9 months. Gabolde highlighted, in his analysis, the consistently small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Thutmose I and Hatshepsut respectively for instance, Flinders Petrie's older study of scarab seals noted 86 seals for Thutmose I, 19 seals for Thutmose II and 149 seals for Hatshepsut while more recent studies by Jaeger estimate a total of 241 seals for Thutmose I, 463 seals for Hatshepsut and only 65 seals for Thutmose II.[13] Hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the king's reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years, respectively. Consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign.

[edit]Argument for a long reign

Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's autobiography can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose a "hawk in the nest," indicating that he was perhaps a child when he assumed the throne.[14] Since he lived long enough to father two children--Neferure and Thutmose III--this suggests that he may have had a longer reign of 13 years in order to reach adulthoood and start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13-year reign for Thutmose II.[15] Alan Gardiner noted that at one point, a monument had been identified by Georges Daressy in 1900[16] which was dated to Thutmose's 18th year, although its precise location has not been identified.[17] This inscription is now usually attributed to Hatshepsut, who certainly did have an 18th year. von Beckerath observes that a Year 18 date appears in a fragmentary inscription of an Egyptian official and notes that the date likely refers to Hatshepsut's prenomen Maatkare, which had been altered from Aakheperenre Thutmose II, with the reference to the deceased Thutmose II being removed.[18] There is also the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16 which von Beckerath believes occurred 30 years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the main source of her claim to power. This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose II's reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I's rule.[19]

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I,[20] but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian colonists retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I.[21] On account of his relative youth at the time, Thutmose II dispatched an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt with the aid of his father's military generals.[22]

Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet.[23] Although this campaign has been called a minor raid, there is a fragment which was recorded by Kurt Sethe which records a campaign in Upper Retenu, or Syria, which appears to have reached as far as a place called Niy where Thutmose I hunted elephants after returning from crossing the Euphrates.[24] This quite possibly indicates that the raid against the Shasu was only fought en route to Syria.[25]

Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.[26] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests:

He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power.[27]


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